Animal models in influenza vaccine testing
ABSTRACT The threat of a pandemic outbreak of influenza A H5N1 and H2N2 has brought attention to the development of new vaccines. Regulatory authorities require companies to provide data proving the effectiveness of vaccines, which cannot, however, be based on real efficacy data in humans. A weight-of-evidence approach may be used, based on evidence of protection in an appropriate animal model and the satisfaction of the surrogate end points in the clinical situation. In this review, we will discuss various animal species that can be infected with influenza. The main animals used for testing vaccines destined for human use are laboratory mice and ferrets and, to a lesser extent, macaques. We will focus particularly on these species.
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- "The " gold-standard " of evaluating morbidity in murine models of viral disease including influenza, is measuring the percentage of body weight lost during the course of infection (Mozdzanowska, 2005; van der Laan, 2008). However, weight loss is not a reliable predictor of infection outcome or survival as mice can readily recover losses of 25–30% of body weight. "
ABSTRACT: In animal models of influenza, systemic weight loss is the primary indicator of morbidity from infection, which does not assess local lung pathology or the immune response. Here, we used a mouse-adapted pulse-oximeter as a non-invasive clinical readout of lung function during influenza infection in mice, and found direct correlations between oxygen saturation levels and lung pathology, that reflected the morbidity and survival from influenza infection. We found blood oxygen levels to be a more accurate assessment than weight-loss morbidity in predicting lung pathology in hosts infected with different viral doses, and in assessing immune-mediated viral clearance in the lung.Virology 07/2009; 390(2):151-6. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2009.05.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- Anesthésie et analgésie 03/1952; 9(1):17-9.