A longitudinal investigation of interpersonal violence in relation to mental health and substance use
ABSTRACT The authors examined longitudinally the mental health status of women as a function of different types and combinations of exposure to interpersonal violence. A structured telephone interview was administered to a household probability sample of 4,008 women (18-89 years of age), who were then recontacted for 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Interviews assessed lifetime violence history (i.e., sexual assault, physical assault, witnessed serious injury or violent death), past-year mental health functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use problems), and new instances of violence occurring after the baseline interview. Results indicate that (a) lifetime violence exposure was associated with increased risk of PTSD, depression, and substance use problems; (b) odds of PTSD, depression, and substance use problems increased incrementally with the number of different types of violence experienced; (c) relations were fairly stable over a 2-year period; and (d) new incidents of violence between the baseline and follow-up interviews were associated with heightened risk of PTSD and substance use problems. Greater understanding of the cumulative impact of violence exposure will inform service provision for individuals at high risk.
- SourceAvailable from: Ijeoma Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n = 39), unauthorized immigrants (n = 77), naturalized citizens (n = 30), and US-born citizen mothers (n = 383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99) = 0.709, p = .510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence.Child Abuse & Neglect 11/2014; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.10.009 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of cumulative violence victimization on health care workers' subsequent posttraumatic stress-depression comorbidity. Female nurses and nursing personnel (N = 1,044) answered questions about lifetime violence victimization (e.g., childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and workplace violence) at baseline and completed the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) Disorder screen and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale 6 months later. Seven percent screened positive for comorbid posttraumatic stress-depression at 6-month monitoring. Workers who reported one, two, or three or more types of violence victimization at baseline had 2.41 (p < .10), 2.35 (p > .05), and 6.44 (p < .01) greater odds, respectively, of subsequently screening positive for comorbid PTS-depression compared to their counterparts who reported no violence victimization at baseline. These results suggest the need to provide female nurses and nursing personnel with information about (1) the risk cumulative violence victimization poses for poorer mental health and functioning, and (2) evidence-based trauma informed treatment options outside their place of employment for those affected by violence victimization who develop mental health symptoms. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(6):224-232.].06/2014; 62(6):224-232. DOI:10.3928/21650799-20140514-01
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ABSTRACT: This study considers links between the number of types of violence to which women have been exposed, depression, and executive functions (EFs). Substantial research has established EF deficits among depressed individuals as well as individuals exposed to trauma. Studies have also indicated a relationship between trauma exposure and depressive symptoms across a range of traumatic events, such as combat exposure, motor vehicle accidents, natural disasters, and assaults. This study examines this relationship in an ethnically diverse community sample of 93 women exposed to interpersonal violence who completed a battery of EF tasks that assessed processing speed, working memory, response inhibition, and set shifting. Women reported an average of 5.8 types of interpersonal violence events. The number of types of interpersonal violence events was significantly related to depressive symptoms, although not EF performance. Specific EFs, such as working memory and response inhibition, were positively related to depressive symptoms.Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 03/2014; 23(2):168-187. DOI:10.1080/10926771.2014.872749