The authors examined longitudinally the mental health status of women as a function of different types and combinations of exposure to interpersonal violence. A structured telephone interview was administered to a household probability sample of 4,008 women (18-89 years of age), who were then recontacted for 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Interviews assessed lifetime violence history (i.e., sexual assault, physical assault, witnessed serious injury or violent death), past-year mental health functioning (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use problems), and new instances of violence occurring after the baseline interview. Results indicate that (a) lifetime violence exposure was associated with increased risk of PTSD, depression, and substance use problems; (b) odds of PTSD, depression, and substance use problems increased incrementally with the number of different types of violence experienced; (c) relations were fairly stable over a 2-year period; and (d) new incidents of violence between the baseline and follow-up interviews were associated with heightened risk of PTSD and substance use problems. Greater understanding of the cumulative impact of violence exposure will inform service provision for individuals at high risk.
"For example, one study found that individuals who had been abused, neglected, or both, had significantly higher PCL-R scores than those who had not, even after controlling for differences in demographic characteristics and criminal history (Weiler and Widom 1996). In addition, early victimisation and neglect have been identified as predictors of traits associated with psychopathy such as violence, substance abuse, sexual offending, and callousness (for example, Hedtke et al. 2008). Porter (1996) also posits that childhood trauma may lead to the reduced affective responsiveness seen in psychopathy, as indexed by Factor 1. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether distinct subgroups of psychopathic traits exist in a sample of civil psychiatric patients, using data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Project (n = 810), by means of latent class analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the associations with criminal behaviour, violence, and gender. The best fitting latent class model was a 4-class solution: a ‘high psychopathy class’ (class 1; 26.4%), an ‘intermediate psychopathy class’ (class 2; 16.0%), a ‘low affective-interpersonal and high antisocial-lifestyle psychopathy class’ (class 3; 31.3%), and a ‘normative class’ (class 4; 26.3%). Each of the latent classes was predicted by differing external variables. Psychopathy is not a dichotomous entity, rather it falls along a skewed continuum that is best explained by four homogenous groups that are differentially related to gender, and criminal and violent behaviour.
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 07/2015; 54(3). DOI:10.1111/hojo.12128
"Consistent with guidelines for the scale, pain grades of 0, 1, and 2 were classified as No or Low disability chronic pain (0), while grades 3 and 4 were classified as High disability chronic pain (1). Mental Health was measured using established self-report measures of symptoms of depression and PTSD, two common and often debilitating mental health problems experienced by IPV survivors (Golding 1999; Hedtke et al. 2008). First, the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES- D) Scale (Radloff 1977) was used to measure depressive symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using baseline data from a survey of 309 Canadian women recently separated from an abusive partner, we investigated patterns of access to health, social, legal, and violence-specific services and whether abuse history and social and health variables predict service use. We compared rates of service use to population rates, and used logistic regression to identify determinants of use. Service use rates were substantially higher than population estimates in every category, particularly in general and mental health sectors. Although women were confident in their ability to access services, they reported substantial unmet need, difficulty accessing services, and multiple barriers. The strongest unique predictors of use varied across service type. Health variables (high disability chronic pain, symptoms of depression and PTSD), low income, and mothering were the most consistent predictors. Service providers and policy makers must account for social location, abuse history, and health status of Intimate Violence (IPV) survivors. Strategies to enhance access to primary health care services, and to create a system of more integrated, accessible services, are required.
Journal of Family Violence 05/2015; 30(4):419-431. DOI:10.1007/s10896-015-9688-8 · 1.17 Impact Factor
"It is possible that when substance abuse was problematic for mothers, it, and not domestic violence, was the maltreatment report type. Although throughout the literature, substance abuse has been highly correlated with domestic violence (e.g., Bennett & Bland, 2008; Campbell, 2002; Hedtke et al., 2008; Martin, Moracco, Chang, Council, & Dulli, 2008), this relationship may play out differently for immigrants, given that in our study and prior child welfare studies, immigrant parents were less likely to have been identified as having concerns with substance abuse than nonimmigrant parents (Dettlaff, Earner & Phillips, 2009; Berger-Cardoso, Dettlaff Finno-Velasquez, Scott, & Faulkner, 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n = 39), unauthorized immigrants (n = 77), naturalized citizens (n = 30), and US-born citizen mothers (n = 383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99) = 0.709, p = .510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence.
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