Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on blood pressure in subjects with coronary heart disease using multiple medications
Dept of Public Health, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. European Journal of Nutrition
(Impact Factor: 3.47).
09/2008; 47(6):319-28. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-008-0728-5
Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids has been of wide interest due to their beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of fatty fish and lean (white) fish on fatty acid composition of serum lipids and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with CHD using multiple drugs for this condition.
The study was an 8-week controlled, parallel intervention. Inclusion criteria were myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack, age under 70 years, use of betablockers and presence of sinus rhythm. The subjects were randomized to one of the following groups: 4 meals/week fatty fish (n = 11), 4 meals/week lean fish (n = 12) and control diet including lean meat (n = 10).
The mean (+/-SD) of reported fish meals per week was 4.3 +/- 0.4, 4.7 +/- 1.1 and 0.6 +/- 0.4 in the groups, respectively. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in serum lipids increased in the fatty fish group only (P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased in the lean fish group (0 vs. 8 week: 3.5 +/- 3.2 and 4.6 +/- 3.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Serum total triglyceride concentration did not significantly change. HDL cholesterol concentration change differed among groups but without significant post hoc differences. Apolipoprotein A-1 concentration decreased in the control group (0 vs. 8 week, P < 0.05). Coagulation factors, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and heart rate variability (24 h Holter) did not change among the groups.
Our results suggest that intake of lean fish at least four times per week could reduce blood pressure levels in CHD patients.
Available from: Trudy Voortman
- "The importance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and in infancy has been widely studied in relation to child cognitive and visual development   . In adults, PUFAs have been associated with improved cardiometabolic health       , but whether early life PUFA exposure affects cardiometabolic health is unclear. The presence of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) in breast milk has been suggested as a potential mechanism for beneficial effects of breastfeeding on subsequent health outcomes such as a lower blood pressure , but randomized controlled trials with PUFA supplementation to infant formula, or to lactating or pregnant women have reported inconsistent effects on blood pressure in later childhood     . "
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ABSTRACT: The importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in fetal life and infancy has been widely studied in relation to child cognitive and visual development, but whether early life PUFA exposure is related to cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear. The focus of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of PUFA dietary intake and blood levels during pregnancy, lactation, or early childhood (⩽ 5 y) on obesity, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity. We identified 4,302 abstracts in the databases Embase, Medline and Cochrane Central (April 2014), of which 56 articles, reporting on 45 unique studies, met all selection criteria. Many of the included studies focused on obesity as an outcome (33 studies), whereas studies on insulin sensitivity were relatively scarce (6 studies). Overall, results for obesity, blood pressure, and blood lipids were inconsistent, with a few studies reporting effects in opposite directions and other studies that did not observe any effects of PUFAs on these outcomes. Four studies suggested beneficial effects of PUFAs on insulin sensitivity. We conclude that there is insufficient evidence to support a beneficial effect of PUFAs in fetal life or early childhood on obesity, blood pressure, or blood lipids. More research is needed to investigate the potential favorable effects of PUFAs on insulin sensitivity, and to examine the role of specific fatty acids in early life on later cardiometabolic health.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Progress in lipid research 05/2015; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.plipres.2015.05.001 · 10.02 Impact Factor
Available from: Maria Angeles Zulet
- "fatty acid content of the fish is important, but also other nutrients in fish may influence on CVD. In this sense, Erkkilä et al. found that the intake of lean fish at least four times per week could reduce blood pressure levels in coronary heart disease patients . Likewise, there are also some evidences that suggest benefits on body weight  . "
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 07/2011; 21 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):B1-15. DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2011.05.001 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Die demografische Entwicklung zeigt eine Zunahme der älteren Bevölkerung mit zahlreichen Vorerkrankungen. Insbesondere die Prävalenz der koronaren Herzerkrankung steigt mit zunehmendem Lebensalter rapide an und erhöht das Risiko für eine perioperative Myokardischämie. In den letzten Jahren sind multimodale Therapiekonzepte entwickelt worden, um z. B. schwerwiegende kardiale Ereignisse zu vermeiden und damit das perioperative Risiko zu reduzieren. Zu diesen Therapiekonzepten zählt der Einsatz kardioprotektiv wirkender Medikamente, wie z. B. β-Rezeptoren-Blocker und Statine. Die aktuellen Leitlinien beinhalten im Sinne einer Klasse-I-Empfehlung die perioperative Fortführung, sowohl einer chronischen Therapie mit β-Rezeptoren-Blockern als auch mit Statinen. Das Verfahren der Konditionierung ist experimentell gut erforscht und hat auch klinisch tendenzielle Effekte. Neben der klassischen ischämischen und anästhetikainduzierten Präkonditionierung ist das nichtinvasive Verfahren der Fernpräkonditionierung für viele Patienten besonders interessant. Große randomisierte, multizentrische Studien sind hierbei für eine abschließende Aussage notwendig. Obwohl die Studienlage für die Durchführung einer Regionalanästhesie bezüglich Kardioprotektion sehr heterogen ist, hat sie einen besonderen Stellenwert im Rahmen der perioperativen Schmerztherapie und sollte daher als ein Teil der multimodalen Therapiekonzepte mit genutzt werden.
Der Anaesthesist 11/2011; 60(11). DOI:10.1007/s00101-011-1943-7 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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