Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on blood pressure in subjects with coronary heart disease using multiple medications.
ABSTRACT Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids has been of wide interest due to their beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of fatty fish and lean (white) fish on fatty acid composition of serum lipids and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with CHD using multiple drugs for this condition.
The study was an 8-week controlled, parallel intervention. Inclusion criteria were myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack, age under 70 years, use of betablockers and presence of sinus rhythm. The subjects were randomized to one of the following groups: 4 meals/week fatty fish (n = 11), 4 meals/week lean fish (n = 12) and control diet including lean meat (n = 10).
The mean (+/-SD) of reported fish meals per week was 4.3 +/- 0.4, 4.7 +/- 1.1 and 0.6 +/- 0.4 in the groups, respectively. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in serum lipids increased in the fatty fish group only (P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased in the lean fish group (0 vs. 8 week: 3.5 +/- 3.2 and 4.6 +/- 3.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Serum total triglyceride concentration did not significantly change. HDL cholesterol concentration change differed among groups but without significant post hoc differences. Apolipoprotein A-1 concentration decreased in the control group (0 vs. 8 week, P < 0.05). Coagulation factors, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and heart rate variability (24 h Holter) did not change among the groups.
Our results suggest that intake of lean fish at least four times per week could reduce blood pressure levels in CHD patients.
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ABSTRACT: At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (<50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (<25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.European Journal of Nutrition 02/2014; 53(4). · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Atlantic salmon consumption on underlying biological mechanisms associated with anxiety such as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) as well as a measure of self-reported anxiety. Moreover, these biological and self-reported outcome measures were investigated in relation to specific nutrients; vitamin D status, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February) or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period). HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), HR, state- and trait-anxiety (STAI), were assessed before (pre-test) and at the end of the 23 weeks dietary intervention period (post-test). The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety.Nutrients 12/2014; 6(12):5405-5418. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fish oil intake reduces serum triglycerides; however, little is known about the effects of dietary fish intake on lipoprotein subclasses. We aimed at assessing the effect of fatty and lean fish intake on the lipoprotein subclasses in an intervention study. The intervention study included 33 patients with coronary heart disease, who were aged 61.0 ± 5.8 (mean ± SD) years. The subjects were randomly assigned to a fatty fish (n = 11), lean fish (n = 12), or control (n = 10) diet for 8 weeks. Fish diets included at least 4 fish meals per week. Subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork, and chicken. Lipoprotein subclasses and their lipid components were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid increased in the fatty fish group. The concentrations of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and total lipids in very large high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) increased in the fatty fish group (overall difference P = .005, P = .002, and P = .007, respectively; false discovery rate P = .04, P = .04, and P = .05, respectively). The mean size of HDL particles increased in the fatty fish group (9.8 ± 0.3 nm at baseline and 9.9 ± 0.4 nm at end of study; overall difference P = .004, false discovery rate P = .04). The fish diets did not affect very-low-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein size. Fatty fish intake at least 4 times per week increases HDL particle size which might have beneficial effect in patients with coronary heart disease.Journal of Clinical Lipidology 01/2013; 8(1):126-133. · 3.59 Impact Factor