Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on blood pressure in subjects with coronary heart disease using multiple medications.
ABSTRACT Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids has been of wide interest due to their beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of fatty fish and lean (white) fish on fatty acid composition of serum lipids and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with CHD using multiple drugs for this condition.
The study was an 8-week controlled, parallel intervention. Inclusion criteria were myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack, age under 70 years, use of betablockers and presence of sinus rhythm. The subjects were randomized to one of the following groups: 4 meals/week fatty fish (n = 11), 4 meals/week lean fish (n = 12) and control diet including lean meat (n = 10).
The mean (+/-SD) of reported fish meals per week was 4.3 +/- 0.4, 4.7 +/- 1.1 and 0.6 +/- 0.4 in the groups, respectively. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in serum lipids increased in the fatty fish group only (P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased in the lean fish group (0 vs. 8 week: 3.5 +/- 3.2 and 4.6 +/- 3.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Serum total triglyceride concentration did not significantly change. HDL cholesterol concentration change differed among groups but without significant post hoc differences. Apolipoprotein A-1 concentration decreased in the control group (0 vs. 8 week, P < 0.05). Coagulation factors, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and heart rate variability (24 h Holter) did not change among the groups.
Our results suggest that intake of lean fish at least four times per week could reduce blood pressure levels in CHD patients.
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ABSTRACT: At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (<50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (<25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.European Journal of Nutrition 02/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Studies on fish oil effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are inconclusive. We evaluated fish effects on fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane and ABP values and tested the hypothesis that the starting membrane fatty acid composition affects the ability to incorporate additional polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decrease blood pressure. In 55 hypertensive patients, we measured RBC membrane fatty acid by gas chromatography and performed ABP monitoring. Patients received nutritional counseling and 3 weekly meals of trout rich in PUFA. In 42 patients, RBC membrane fatty acid and ABP were reassessed after 6 months. At baseline, the PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio of RBC membrane (PUFA/SFA) was inversely related to 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic and pulse pressure, a relationship that was independent of covariables. At follow-up, the PUFA/SFA ratio increased in 20 (48%) of 42 patients. Patients with increased PUFA/SFA ratio at follow-up had lower baseline PUFA/SFA ratio than patients without such increase. Fish meal supplementation decreased 24-hour systolic and diastolic pressure only in patients who had increased PUFA/SFA ratio, a change that was more prominent during the nighttime. The change in PUFA/SFA was inversely and independently related to the change in 24-hour systolic and pulse pressure, and a logistic regression analysis indicated low baseline PUFA/SFA ratio as the only independent predictor of PUFA/SFA increase and blood pressure decrease. The ability of fish meals to increase membrane PUFA content and decrease blood pressure in hypertensive patients depends upon the starting membrane fatty acid composition.American Journal of Hypertension 01/2014; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aging is a condition of chronic inflammation. In healthy Australians ≥64 years, the primary aim was to determine whether four servings/week of mixed fish (FISH) improves serum cytokines (i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) compared to a diet low in fish (<1 serving/week, CONTROL); the secondary aims were to assess the effect of the diet on blood pressure and serum lipids (TC, HDL-C, TG, calculated LDL-C). An 8-week randomized, parallel study, stratified by CRP (<3 mg/L vs. ≥3 mg/L) on entry to the study. Compliance was measured using 3-day weighed food records in weeks 1 and 7 of the study. A 12-h fasting blood sample was taken at baseline and 8-weeks for erythrocyte fatty acids as confirmation of compliance, and measurement of serum cytokines and lipids. Blood pressure was measured at both time points. EIGHTY PARTICIPANTS COMPLETED THE STUDY (MEAN (SD) AGE: 69.6 (5.8) years). During week 1 of the study, mean ± SEM daily dietary intake of very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCN n-3 PUFA) in FISH vs. CONTROL was 1,676±129 mg vs. 27±5 mg (p<0.001). Mean (SD) gram intake of study fish and meat was 121 (45) g and 123 (78) g, for those allocated to FISH and CONTROL, respectively. Mean ± SEM percentage VLCN n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes at 8-weeks was higher in those allocated to FISH vs. CONTROL (10.2±0.2% vs. 8.2±0.3%, p<0.001). There was no between-group difference in CRP (n=80), IL-1β (n=33) or IL-6 (n=21) concentrations, blood pressure, or lipids, at 8-weeks. Eight weeks consumption of four servings/week fish did not affect serum cytokine concentrations, blood pressure or lipids compared to a diet low in fish. In healthy older adults with low inflammatory burden, our results do not support that short-term consumption of mixed fish has a beneficial effect on selected cardiovascular biomarkers.Food & Nutrition Research 01/2014; 58.