Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on blood pressure in subjects with coronary heart disease using multiple medications.
ABSTRACT Intake of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids has been of wide interest due to their beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of fatty fish and lean (white) fish on fatty acid composition of serum lipids and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with CHD using multiple drugs for this condition.
The study was an 8-week controlled, parallel intervention. Inclusion criteria were myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack, age under 70 years, use of betablockers and presence of sinus rhythm. The subjects were randomized to one of the following groups: 4 meals/week fatty fish (n = 11), 4 meals/week lean fish (n = 12) and control diet including lean meat (n = 10).
The mean (+/-SD) of reported fish meals per week was 4.3 +/- 0.4, 4.7 +/- 1.1 and 0.6 +/- 0.4 in the groups, respectively. The proportions of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in serum lipids increased in the fatty fish group only (P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels decreased in the lean fish group (0 vs. 8 week: 3.5 +/- 3.2 and 4.6 +/- 3.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Serum total triglyceride concentration did not significantly change. HDL cholesterol concentration change differed among groups but without significant post hoc differences. Apolipoprotein A-1 concentration decreased in the control group (0 vs. 8 week, P < 0.05). Coagulation factors, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and heart rate variability (24 h Holter) did not change among the groups.
Our results suggest that intake of lean fish at least four times per week could reduce blood pressure levels in CHD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity in hypertensive patients is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, both of which are improved by weight control. n-3 Fatty acids have diverse effects on mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis, including a decrease in serum triacylglycerols and an increase in HDL(2) cholesterol. The objective was to examine whether dietary fish enhances the effects of weight loss on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in 69 overweight, treated hypertensive patients. Overweight patients being treated for hypertension were randomly assigned to either a daily fish meal (3.65 g n-3 fatty acids), a weight-loss regimen, the 2 regimens combined, or a control group for 16 wk. Sixty-three subjects completed the study. Weight decreased by a mean (+/-SEM) of 5.6 +/- 0.8 kg with energy restriction. Weight loss decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.003) and the area under the curve for insulin (P = 0.003) and glucose (P = 0.047) during an oral-glucose-tolerance test. The greatest decrease occurred in the fish + weight-loss group. There was no independent effect of fish on glucose or insulin. Fish increased HDL(2) cholesterol (P = 0.004) and decreased HDL(3) cholesterol (P = 0.026) without altering total, LDL, or HDL cholesterol. Weight loss had no effect on these variables. Fasting triacylglycerols fell significantly with fish consumption (29%) and weight loss (26%). The fish + weight-loss group showed the greatest improvement in lipids: triacylglycerols decreased by 38% (P < 0.001) and HDL(2) cholesterol increased by 24% (P = 0.04) compared with the control group. Incorporating a daily fish meal into a weight-loss regimen was more effective than either measure alone at improving glucose-insulin metabolism and dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular risk is likely to be substantially reduced in overweight hypertensive patients with a weight-loss program incorporating fish meals rich in n-3 fatty acids.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/1999; 70(5):817-25. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in the form of fresh fish, fish oil, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipid fractions, and platelets and erythrocyte membranes of young healthy male students were examined. Altogether 59 subjects (aged 19–32 yr, body mass index 16.8–31.3 kg/m2) were randomized into the following diet groups: (i) control group; (ii) fish diet group eating fish meals five times per week [0.38±0.04 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 0.67±0.09 g DHA per day]; (iii) DHA oil group taking algae-derived DHA oil capsules (1.68 g/d DHA oil group taking algae-derived DHA oil capsules (1.68 g/d DHA in triglyceride form); and (iv) fish oil group (1.33 g EPA and 0.95 g DHA/d as free fatty acids) for 14 wk. The fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, platelets, and erythrocyte membranes was analyzed by gas chromatography. The subjects kept 4-d food records four times during the study to estimate the intake of nutrients. In the fish diet, in DHA oil, and in fish oil groups, the amounts of n-3 fatty acids increased and those of n-6 fatty acids decreased significantly in plasma lipid fractions and in platelets and erythrocyte membranes. A positive relationship was shown between the total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and EPA and DHA intake and the increase in total n-3 PUFA and EPA and DHA in all lipid fractions analyzed. DHA was preferentially incorporated into phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride (TG) and there was very little uptake in cholesterol ester (CE), while EPA was preferentially incorporated into PL and CE. The proportion of EPA in plasma lipids and platelets and erythrocyte membranes increased also by DHA supplementation, and the proportion of linoleic acid increased in platelets and erythrocyte membranes in the DHA oil group as well. These results suggest retroconversion of DHA to EPA and that DHA also interferes with linoleic acid metabolism.Lipids 32(7):697-705. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased fish or fish-oil consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiac mortality, especially sudden death. This benefit putatively arises from the incorporation of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into cardiomyocyte phospholipids. The study examined the kinetics of incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into human myocardial membrane phospholipids during supplementation with fish oil and alpha-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil. Patients with low self-reported fish intake (<1 fish meal/wk and no oil supplements) accepted for elective cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly allocated to 1 of 6 groups: no supplement; fish oil (6 g EPA+DHA/d) for either 7, 14, or 21 d before surgery; flaxseed oil; or olive oil (both 10 mL/d for 21 d before surgery). Right atrial appendage tissue removed during surgery and blood collected at enrollment and before surgery were analyzed for phospholipid fatty acids. Surgery rescheduling resulted in a range of treatment times from 7 to 118 d. In the fish-oil-treated subjects, accumulation of EPA and DHA in the right atrium was curvilinear with time and reached a maximum at approximately 30 d of treatment and displaced mainly arachidonic acid. Flaxseed oil supplementation yielded a small increase in atrial EPA but not DHA, whereas olive oil did not significantly change atrial n-3 fatty acids. The results of the present study show that dietary n-3 fatty acids are rapidly incorporated into human myocardial phospholipids at the expense of arachidonic acid during high-dose fish-oil supplementation.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2007; 85(5):1222-8. · 6.50 Impact Factor