Diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

Department of Pneumology/Allergy, Ruhrlandklinik, Medical Faculty, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine (Impact Factor: 3.12). 10/2008; 14(5):455-61. DOI: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283056a61
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the recent advances in the diagnostic procedures for sarcoidosis and explore future directions.
Novel imaging techniques have been explored in sarcoidosis, such as positron emission tomography using L-[3-F]-alpha-methyltyrosine, which is more specific for malignancy than F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The combined modality of L-[3-F]-alpha-methyltyrosine-positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography could successfully discriminate sarcoidosis from malignancy. The finding of delayed enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging could identify cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis with higher sensitivity than echocardiography, thallium scintigraphy, and gallium scintigraphy. Endobronchial ultrasonograpy-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is a safe and useful tool for diagnosing sarcoidosis with a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 85-93, 78-89, and 92-96%, respectively. Developments in genetics have demonstrated that 99% of the human leukocyte antigen DRB1*0301/DQB1*0201-positive patients with Löfgren's syndrome show a spontaneous remission, in contrast to only 55% of the human leukocyte antigen DRB1*0301/DQB1*0201-negative patients. These alleles could be novel promising factors for discriminating a prognosis in Löfgren's syndrome.
Recent development including novel imaging techniques, novel biopsy procedures, and genetic analyses could be of value for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic inflammatory disorder involving multiple organs, and ocular manifestation (represented by granulomatous uveitis) is one of the common features. A well-known immunologic feature in sarcoidosis is an increased CD4+ helper T-cell type 1 lymphocyte subset in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The current study investigated the vitreous lymphocyte subsets of ocular sarcoidosis to elucidate the immunologic features of this disorder in the eye. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Fifty-one eyes of 38 patients with ocular sarcoidosis, confirmed by international diagnostic criteria, were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven eyes of 26 patients with other causes of uveitis were enrolled as nonsarcoid controls. METHODS: Evaluation of diagnostic tests for cell profiles of ocular sarcoidosis. Lymphocytes in the vitreous samples were analyzed by cytology, polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry. Peripheral blood was also obtained from each patient and analyzed in comparison with the vitreous samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: CD4/CD8 ratios of vitreal and peripheral T lymphocytes. RESULTS: CD4/CD8 ratios of the vitreous T lymphocytes were significantly higher in ocular sarcoidosis than in nonsarcoidosis vitreous samples. In the patients with ocular sarcoidosis, the CD4/CD8 ratios of vitreal T lymphocytes were significantly higher than the CD4/CD8 ratios of peripheral T lymphocytes. No significant differences were found between the CD4/CD8 ratios of vitreal and peripheral T lymphocytes in the patients without sarcoidosis. Moreover, the CD4/CD8 ratios of peripheral T lymphocytes in the patients with ocular sarcoidosis were significantly higher than in patients without sarcoidosis. The sensitivity and specificity of the vitreal CD4/CD8 ratio were 100% and 96.3%, respectively, for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the CD4/CD8 ratio of vitreous-infiltrating lymphocytes has high diagnostic value in ocular sarcoidosis, comparable to that of the CD4/CD8 ratio in BAL fluid lymphocytosis for pulmonary sarcoidosis. Furthermore, a high CD4/CD8 ratio of peripheral blood T lymphocytes should be one of the laboratory findings for ocular sarcoidosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy using flow cytometric analysis may be a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis, particularly in complex cases. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to inhaled endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in indoor environments and assessed in secondary tobacco smoke, has been associated with airway inflammation and asthma exacerbation. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) from patients with interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, lung fibrosis, smoking-related ILD, eosinophilic disorders) was analyzed for the markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). METHODS: BALf was obtained from patients with diffuse lung diseases: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 42), sarcoidosis (n = 22), smoking-related-ILD (n = 11) and eosinophilic disorders (n = 8). Total cell count and differential cell count were performed. In addition, samples were analyzed for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) of 10--18 carbon chain lengths, as markers of LPS, by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The highest LPS concentration was found in patients with eosinophilic disorders and the lowest in patients with sarcoidosis (p< 0.05) followed by the lung fibrosis and the sr-ILD patients. The difference between LPS in BALf with extremely high eosinophil proportion (> 25 %) and those with lower proportion was also significant (p = 0.014). A significant correlation was found between LPS and eosinophils, but not between LPS and lymphocytes, neutrophils, or macrophages count. CONCLUSIONS: A positive relationship of LPS and eosinophilic pulmonary disorders may be linked to a persistent eosinophil activation mediated by Th2 pathway: chronic endotoxin exposure would intensify Th2 pathway resulting in fibrosis and, at the same time, eosinophil stimulation, and hence in eosinophilic pulmonary disorders.
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    ABSTRACT: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiographic findings as well as by histopathological findings. Molecular imaging in recent years has made important progress regarding the study of various inflammatory diseases including sarcoidosis. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides an insight in metabolism of this disease. Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) has shown effectiveness in detecting occult disease and assessing disease activity during treatment. This review article provides an overview of the applications of PET/computed tomography and PET/ magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of patients with sarcoidosis.
    Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine 05/2014; 17(2):123-35. · 0.68 Impact Factor