The impact of development of acute lung injury on hospital mortality in critically ill trauma patients
ABSTRACT The additional impact of development of acute lung injury on mortality in severely-injured trauma patients beyond baseline severity of illness has been questioned. We assessed the contribution of acute lung injury to in-hospital mortality in critically ill trauma patients.
Prospective cohort study. The contribution of acute lung injury to in-hospital mortality was evaluated in two ways. First, multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the independent association of acute lung injury with in-hospital mortality while adjusting for baseline confounding variables. Second, causal pathway models were used to estimate the amount of the overall association of baseline severity of illness with in-hospital mortality that is attributable to the interval development of acute lung injury.
Academic level 1 trauma center.
Two hundred eighty-three critically ill trauma patients without isolated head injury and with an Injury Severity Score > or = 16 were evaluated for development of acute lung injury in the first 5 days after trauma.
Of the 283 patients, 38 (13.4%) died. The unadjusted mortality rate was nearly three-fold greater in the acute lung injury group (23.9% vs. 8.4%; odds ratio = 3.36; 95% confidence interval 1.67-6.77; p = 0.001). Acute lung injury remained an independent risk factor for death after adjustment for age, baseline Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, Injury Severity Score, and blunt mechanism of injury (odds ratio = 2.87; 95% confidence interval 1.29-6.37; p = 0.010). Forty percent of the total association of the baseline Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation III score with mortality occurred via an indirect association through acute lung injury, and the remaining 60% via a direct effect.
Development of acute lung injury in critically ill trauma patients without isolated head injury contributes independently to in-hospital mortality beyond baseline severity of illness measures. In addition, a significant portion of the association between baseline illness severity and risk of death in these patients might be explained by the interval development of acute lung injury.
Article: Who Cares About Preventing ARDS?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ARDS is a common, lethal, and morbid respiratory complication primarily seen in the setting of major trauma and infection. Despite advances in mechanical ventilation for ARDS, many interventions have not been successful in reducing mortality. Recent grant announcements and ongoing clinical trials indicate an interest in preventing ARDS. This Perspective challenges some of the basic assumptions of ARDS prevention and preventive care in the ICU. ARDS is an organ function surrogate outcome. Studies of surrogate outcomes in medicine have repeatedly failed to show an association with patient centered outcomes that might include mortality, quality of life, patient satisfaction, and cost. Organ failure surrogate outcomes in critical care including oxygenation, cardiac output, and blood pressure have similarly failed to show a consistent association with patient centered benefit. Trials designed to demonstrate an effect on surrogate outcomes will rarely be able to demonstrate small, but important, harms so that the net benefit of prevention can be calculated. This will leave clinicians with insufficient information to balance the unknown benefits of ARDS prevention with imprecisely estimated costs or risks of prevention. Because ARDS diagnosis relies on oxygenation and the chest radiograph that might be directly influenced by the prophylactic intervention, studies must be designed to insure that the prevention is not merely cosmetic. Strategies that prevent ARDS need to be tested in trials sufficiently powered to demonstrate their patient centered costs, benefits and harms before widespread adoption.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1164/rccm.201408-1574CP · 11.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV ECLS) has been reported in adult trauma patients with severe respiratory failure; however, ECLS is not available in many trauma centers, few trauma surgeons have experience initiating ECLS and managing ECLS patients, and there is currently little evidence supporting its use in severely injured patients. This study seeks to determine if VV ECLS improves survival in such patients. Data from two American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 trauma centers, which maintain detailed records of patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF), were evaluated retrospectively. The study population included trauma patients between 16 years and 55 years of age treated for AHRF between January 2001 and December 2009. These patients were divided into two cohorts as follows: patients who received VV ECLS after an incomplete or no response to other rescue therapies (ECLS) versus patients who were managed with mechanical ventilation (CONV). The primary outcome was survival to discharge, and secondary outcomes were intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (LOS), total ventilator days, and rate of complications requiring intervention. Twenty-six ECLS patients and 76 CONV patients were compared. Adjusted survival was greater in the ECLS group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.193; 95% confidence interval, 0.042-0.884; p = 0.034). Ventilator days, intensive care unit LOS, and hospital LOS did not differ between the groups. ECLS patients received more blood transfusions and had more bleeding complications, while the CONV patients had more pulmonary complications. A cohort of 17 ECLS and 17 CONV patients matched for age and lung injury severity also demonstrated a significantly greater survival in the ECLS group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.038; 95% confidence interval, 0.004-0.407; p = 0.007). VV ECLS is independently associated with survival in adult trauma patients with AHRF. ECLS should be considered in trauma patients with AHRF when conventional therapies prove ineffective; if ECLS is not readily available, transfer to an ECLS center should be pursued. Therapeutic study, level III.05/2014; 76(5):1275-81. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000213