Protecting the Infant Brain During Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address: .
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.63). 10/2012; 94:1365. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.05.135

ABSTRACT Prevention of brain injury during congenital heart sur-gery has focused on intraoperative and perioperative neuroprotection and neuromonitoring. Many strategies have been adopted as "standard of care." However, the strength of evidence for these practices and the relation-ship to long-term outcomes are unknown. We performed a systematic review (January 1, 1990 to July 30, 2010) of neuromonitoring and neuroprotection strategies during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in in-fants of age 1 year or less. Papers were graded individu-ally and as thematic groups, assigning evidence-based medicine and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) level of evidence grades. Consensus scores were determined by adjudication. Literature search identified 527 manuscripts; 162 met inclusion criteria. Study designs were prospective obser-vational cohort (53.7%), case-control (21.6%), randomized clinical trial (13%), and retrospective observational co-hort (9.9%). Median sample size was 43 (range 3 to 2,481).

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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to update clinicians on “hot topics” in the management of patients with D-loop transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) in the current surgical era. The arterial switch operation (ASO) has replaced atrial switch procedures for D-TGA, and 90% of patients now reach adulthood. The Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council of the American College of Cardiology assembled a team of experts to summarize current knowledge on genetics, pre-natal diagnosis, surgical timing, balloon atrial septostomy, prostaglandin E1 therapy, intraoperative techniques, imaging, coronary obstruction, arrhythmias, sudden death, neoaortic regurgitation and dilation, neurodevelopmental (ND) issues, and lifelong care of D-TGA patients. In simple D-TGA: 1) familial recurrence risk is low; 2) children diagnosed pre-natally have improved cognitive skills compared with those diagnosed post-natally; 3) echocardiography helps to identify risk factors; 4) routine use of BAS and prostaglandin E1 may not be indicated in all cases; 5) early ASO improves outcomes and reduces costs with a low mortality; 6) single or intramural coronary arteries remain risk factors; 7) post-ASO arrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction should raise suspicion of coronary insufficiency; 8) coronary insufficiency and arrhythmias are rare but are associated with sudden death; 9) early- and late-onset ND abnormalities are common; 10) aortic regurgitation and aortic root dilation are well tolerated; and 11) the aging ASO patient may benefit from “exercise-prescription” rather than restriction. Significant strides have been made in understanding risk factors for cardiac, ND, and other important clinical outcomes after ASO.
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    ABSTRACT: Optimal perfusion strategies for neuroprotection during infant cardiac surgery remain undefined. Despite encouraging experimental data, neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes after cardiac surgery in neonates and infants using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with a period of intermittent perfusion have not been reported, and it is not known whether it can extend DHCA while preserving ND outcomes. Cross-sectional ND evaluation with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition was conducted at 24 months of age. Retrospective clinical data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Forty patients underwent cardiac surgery during the first year of life using a period of uninterrupted DHCA (24 patients) or DHCA interrupted by a period of intermittent perfusion (16 patients). Total duration of DHCA ranged from 5 to 74 minutes and did not predict ND scores. Despite a longer exposure to DHCA in the intermittent perfusion group (55 minutes [1,3 interquartile [IQ] 45.3 to 65.5] versus 38 minutes [1,3 IQ 32 to 40.8]), no differences in ND scores were detected. Significant comorbidities, duration of intensive care unit and hospital stay, as well as multiple procedures with DHCA were independent predictors of ND outcomes at 24 months of age. Despite extended duration of total DHCA, the use of a period of intermittent perfusion to limit uninterrupted DHCA periods to less than 45 minutes could lead to ND outcomes similar to those of patients exposed to brief periods of DHCA. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with intermittent perfusion may facilitate implementation of prospective studies to identify the optimal cerebral perfusion strategy.
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May 27, 2014