Diclofenac sodium 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses postcryosurgery.
ABSTRACT Actinic keratoses are increasingly common skin lesions that are evaluated and treated by dermatologists on a daily basis. It is estimated that more than 90% of actinic keratoses in the US are treated by destructive therapies, such as cryosurgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sequential therapy of cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel.
This prospective, double-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 4 study was performed at 82 community dermatology centers in the US. A total of 714 subjects who had a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis with between 5 and 15 lesions contained in a target area such as the forehead, scalp, and hands were enrolled in the study. These subjects were randomized into 2 arms of the study: cryosurgery alone and cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel for a period of 90 days. Lesion counts were assessed at baseline, and 45, 75, 105, and 135 days after cryosurgery.
Of the 521 patients enrolled in the study who successfully completed all of the visits concluding on day 135, 277 were in the cryosurgery alone arm and 244 were in the cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel arm. At the conclusion of the study, 46% of the subjects in the cryosurgery followed by the use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel arm achieved 100% cumulative (target plus new lesions) lesion clearance compared to 21% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001). One hundred percent target lesion clearance was achieved in 64% of the subjects in the active arm compared to 32% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001).
With the increased prevalence of actinic keratoses, it is important to consider and evaluate emerging therapeutic options. The sequential treatment with cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel for 90 days is well tolerated and can provide a therapeutic modality that may provide patients with actinic keratoses a more successful outcome than monotherapy with cryosurgery by effectively treating clinical and subclinical lesions.
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ABSTRACT: Actinic keratosis is a common dermatologic condition that may regress, remain stable, or progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Some question whether all actinic keratoses should be routinely treated, whereas others contend that the unpredictable natural history of this disease necessitates treatment to prevent malignant transformation. Available treatments include photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, and diclofenac. Each of these options has its advantages and disadvantages, although they all have a place in the management of actinic keratosis. An overview of these treatment modalities is presented, as are the controversies surrounding the treatment of actinic keratosis.Clinics in dermatology 11/2013; 31(6):712-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common skin lesions heralding an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other skin malignancies, arising principally due to excessive ultraviolet (UV) exposure. They are predominantly found in fair-skinned individuals, and increasingly, are a problem of the immunosuppressed. AKs may regress spontaneously, remain stable or transform to invasive SCC. The risk of SCC increases for those with more than 5 AKs, and the majority of SCCs arise from AKs. The main mechanisms of AK formation are inflammation, oxidative stress, immunosuppression, impaired apoptosis, mutagenesis, dysregulation of cell growth and proliferation, and tissue remodeling. Human papilloma virus has also been implicated in the formation of some AKs. Understanding these mechanisms guides the rationale behind the current available treatments for AKs. One of the main principles underpinning the management of AKs is that of field cancerization. Wide areas of skin are exposed to increasing amounts of UV light and other environmental insults as we age. This is especially true for the head, neck and forearms. These insults do not target only the skin where individual lesions develop, but also large areas where crops of AKs may appear. The skin between lesions is exposed to the same insults and is likely to contain as-yet undetectable preclinical lesions or areas of dysplastic cells. The whole affected area is known as the 'field'. Management is therefore divided into lesion-directed and field-directed therapies. Current therapies include lesion-directed cryotherapy and/or excision, and topical field-directed creams: 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, photodynamic therapy and ingenol mebutate. Combining lesion- and field-directed therapies has yielded good results and several novel therapies are under investigation. Treatment is variable and tailored to the individual making a gold standard management algorithm difficult to design. This literature review article aims to describe the rationale behind the best available therapies for AKs in light of current understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology. A PubMed and MEDLINE search of literature was performed between January 1, 2000 and September 18, 2013. Where appropriate, articles published prior to this have been referenced. This is not a systematic review or meta-analysis, but aims to highlight the most up to date understanding of AK disease and its management.Dermatology and therapy. 03/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK). Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4-8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm(2) contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval) composite score (maximum range, 0-24) for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5-10.1), as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3-7.4). Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery.Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 01/2015; 8:1-8.