The development of effective anti-cancer vaccines requires precise assessment of vaccine-induced immunity. This is often hampered by low ex vivo frequencies of antigen-specific T cells and limited defined epitopes. This study investigates the applicability of modified, in vitro-transcribed mRNA encoding a therapeutically relevant tumour antigen to analyse T cell responses in cancer patients. In this study transfection of antigen presenting cells, by mRNA encoding the tumour antigen NY-ESO-1, was optimised and applied to address spontaneous and vaccine-induced T cell responses in cancer patients. Memory CD8+ T cells from lung cancer patients having detectable humoral immune responses directed towards NY-ESO-1 could be efficiently detected in peripheral blood. Specific T cells utilised a range of different T cell receptors, indicating a polyclonal response. Specific killing of a panel of NY-ESO-1 expressing tumour cell lines indicates recognition restricted to several HLA allelic variants, including a novel HLA-B49 epitope. Using a modified mRNA construct targeting the translated antigen to the secretory pathway, detection of NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells in patients could be enhanced, which allowed the in-depth characterisation of established T cell clones. Moreover, broad CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses covering multiple epitopes were detected following mRNA stimulation of patients treated with a recombinant vaccinia/fowlpox NY-ESO-1 vaccine. This approach allows for a precise monitoring of responses to tumour antigens in a setting that addresses the breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific T cell responses, and that is not limited to a particular combination of known epitopes and HLA-restrictions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type I melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) proteins CT7 (MAGE-C1) and MAGE-A3 are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma (MM), and their expression correlates with increased plasma cell proliferation and poor clinical outcome. They belong to the cancer-testis antigen (CTAg) group of tumor-associated proteins, some of which elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are promising antigenic targets for therapeutic tumor vaccines in myeloma; therefore, it is critical to determine if they are immunogenic in MM patients. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses against CTAgs in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: MM, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Bone marrow lymphocytes from two of four untreated MM patients exhibited CT7-specific cellular immune responses as measured by an autologous cellular immunity assay, the first such immune response to CT7 to be reported in cancer patients. Sera from 24 patients were screened by ELISA for humoral immune responses to CTAgs. Two patients with MM demonstrated positive titers, one for MAGE-A1 and the other for SSX1. These data demonstrate that CTAgs, particularly CT7, are immunogenic in MM patients and merit further exploration as targets of immunological therapy in MM.
Cancer immunity: a journal of the Academy of Cancer Immunology 01/2010; 10:4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: To evaluate cancer/testis (CT) antigens as targets for immunotherapy or vaccine approaches in prostate cancer.
We investigated the antibody response in 181 patients with prostate cancer, 83 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients, and 39 healthy donors against 13 different CT antigens recombinantly expressed on yeast surface (RAYS) and compared the results to antigen expression in tumor tissue. We then used the yeast clone expressing the most promising antigen directly as a vaccine to elicit potent cellular immunity.
The antibody response to NY-ESO-1 was more frequent (20%) and strong compared to other investigated antigens, and was associated with progressive disease. Interestingly, it was also detected in several BPH patients (9%). Feeding dendritic cells with NY-ESO-1-expressing yeast cells resulted in efficient HLA presentation and activation of specific CD3(+) T-cells.
The RAYS approach offers a fast means of analyzing serological autoreacitvity in cancer patients and serves as an effective anticancer vaccine platform.
Anticancer research 03/2010; 30(3):895-902. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rigorous evaluation of cancer vaccination requires evidence of benefit to patients with cancer or those at risk of relapse from the disease. Clinical trials are expensive and require considerable human and clinical resources in order to demonstrate this benefit. In the era of defined cancer antigens, it is possible to evaluate immunogenic targets, and assess the quality and magnitude of immune responses against these antigens following vaccination. Analyzing these surrogate end points complements clinical assessment and provides a depth of understanding to better inform trial evaluation and design. We have used the immunogenic cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 as a model antigen. This article summarizes our experience in monitoring immunity against NY-ESO-1.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.