Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates: risk factors and diagnostic and clinical procedure
ABSTRACT Prenatal and neonatal adrenal haemorrhage is being increasingly frequently reported. We present a group of 13 neonates with adrenal haemorrhage, hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology of Warsaw Medical University from 2003 to 2007.
of this study was to analyse: the perinatal history, haemorrhage predisposing factors, its size, localization and progress estimated by ultrasonography, as well as clinical, biochemical and hormonal findings indicating adrenal insufficiency.
the study group comprised 13 neonates hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Warsaw Medical University, from 2003 to 2007, due to adrenal haemorrhage diagnosed by ultrasonography in the first week of life.
all neonates were born at term, there was a male predominance. Twelve neonates had risk factors such as: birth trauma, intrauterine infection, perinatal asphyxia. No risk factors were found only in 1 neonate. One neonate had bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, others were unilateral - predominantly right-sided. In the study group clinical presentation was asymptomatic in 3 neonates, 1 of the patients had anaemia, 9 persistent jaundice, 2 bluish discoloration of the scrotum. Only one patient with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage showed sings of adrenal insufficiency and supplementation with glyco- and mineralcorticoids was necessary. Complete resolution of adrenal haemorrhage was reported after an average time of 3.5 months of observation.
1. Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates rarely leads to development of adrenal insufficiency. 2. In neonates with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage an extended hormonal diagnosis is required. 3. All patients require a systematic clinical and sonographic follow-up. Unilateral haemorrhage should be differentiated from neuroblastoma. 4. Scrotal haematoma may be a symptom of adrenal haemorrhage.
- SourceAvailable from: Paras Rashmikant Kothari
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Because adrenal bleeding may remain asymptomatic, the real occurrence is probably higher . Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is frequently associated with birth trauma, perinatal asphyxia , intrauterine infection, coagulation defects and thromboembolism  . Adrenal hemorrhage usually presents with neonatal jaundice, paleness and/or flank mass, discoloration of the scrotum, anemia and adrenal insufficiency   . "
ABSTRACT: Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is frequently associated with birth trauma, perinatal asphyxia, intrauterine infection, co- agulation defects and thromboembolism. It has varied clinical presentation depending on degree of hemorrhage and amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. The most common clinical presentations are persistent jaundice and flank mass. We report a case of left sided adrenal hemorrhage in a breech delivered male neonate with perinatal asphyxia presented with anemia and fever. On further evaluation, he was also having moderate communicating hydro- cephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage. The adrenal hemorrhage was managed conservatively. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage. Right ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done for hydro- cephalus. Postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is asymptomatic at follow-up. Keywords: Adrenal Hemorrhage; Neonatal Anemia; Hydrocephalus; Intraventricular HemorrhageInternational Journal of Clinical Medicine 10/2013;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaginal delivery of the macrosomic fetus may result in hemorrhage of intra-abdominal organs. Mostly affected organs are the liver and adrenal glands. Hemorrhage of liver is usually occurs as a subcapsular hemorrhage and it is clinically presented an abdominal mass without symptoms of anemia. But intraparenchymal hemorrhage of liver is very rare and there is no sign of abdominal mass. However, in contrast to subcapsular hemorrhage, symptoms of anemia are rapidly developed in newborns. A macrosomic newborn by vaginal delivery at term. Within 6 h after delivery, the patient showed pallor without tachycardia and hypotension. In laboratory studies, hemoglobin level failed from 14 g/dL to 10 g/dL within 6 h. Physical examination revealed no signs of abdominal mass. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the sixth segment of liver and right adrenal hemorrhage were detected on the ultrasonographic scan. Hepatic function tests were normal in the whole follow-up period, and hemorrhage resolved within two weeks. Following months after discharge, adrenal hemorrhage also resolved without any complication. Hepatic hemorrhages, causing hemorrhagic anemia in neonates, usually occur in subcapsular form. Intraparenchymal hepatic hemorrhage should especially be considered in those newborns, which are rapidly developed symptoms of anemia without any abdominal mass.Journal of Perinatal Medicine 03/2011; 39(3):353-4. DOI:10.1515/JPM.2011.018 · 1.36 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A retrospective review of the literature was performed to determine the natural history, prevalence, prognosis and management of adrenal injury associated with blunt abdominal trauma in pediatric population. Blunt adrenal injury in children is uncommon, rarely isolated, and typically present as part of a multi organ trauma. Adrenal hemorrhage is being diagnosed more frequently since the emergence of computed tomography in modern emergency rooms. Obstetric birth trauma during vaginal delivery of a macrosomic fetus may result in neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. In children appear to be an incidental finding that resolves on follow-up imaging. Most of these injuries are self-limited and do not require intervention. The differential diagnosis of an adrenal neoplasm, especially in children with an isolated adrenal hemorrhage, must be considered. The presence of adrenal hemorrhage in the absence of a trauma history should alert to the possibility of pediatric inflicted injury.Asian Journal of Surgery 07/2011; 34(3):103-10. DOI:10.1016/j.asjsur.2011.08.003 · 0.91 Impact Factor