Article

Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women

Slone Epidemiology Center, BostonUniversity, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 08/2008; 168(14):1487-92. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.14.1487
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an increasingly serious health problem among African American women. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in 2 studies but not in a third; however, to our knowledge, no data are available on African Americans regarding this issue. Our objective was to examine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women.
A prospective follow-up study of 59,000 African American women has been in progress since 1995. Participants reported on food and beverage consumption in 1995 and 2001. Biennial follow-up questionnaires ascertained new diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. The present analyses included 43,960 women who gave complete dietary and weight information and were free from diabetes at baseline. We identified 2713 incident cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus during 338,884 person-years of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher with higher intake of both sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks. After adjustment for confounding variables including other dietary factors, the incidence rate ratio for 2 or more soft drinks per day was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). For fruit drinks, the comparable incidence rate ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.52). The association of diabetes with soft drink consumption was almost entirely mediated by body mass index, whereas the association with fruit drink consumption was independent of body mass index.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. While there has been increasing public awareness of the adverse health effects of soft drinks, little attention has been given to fruit drinks, which are often marketed as a healthier alternative to soft drinks.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Deborah Boggs Bookwalter, Aug 13, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
    • "In 2004, Bray et al. (2004) published a study linking the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages to obesity. Since that publication, other epidemiologic studies have shown that chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with greater rates of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (Bray et al. 2004; Bremer et al. 2010; Fung et al. 2009; Montonen et al. 2007; Palmer et al. 2008; Schulze et al. 2004; Yoshida et al. 2007). Experimental studies have compared the metabolic health effects of different sugar-sweetened beverages O including pure glucose, pure fructose , HFCS, and sucrose O at various doses of sugar intake and consumed for various lengths of time (1 day to 10 weeks) (Aeberli et al. 2011, 2013; Cox et al. 2011, 2012; Le et al. 2006; Stanhope et al. 2008, 2009, 2011a, 2011b; Swarbrick et al. 2008; Teff et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ≤355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ∼28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 05/2014; 39(5):544-52. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2013-0407 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "During the last decade, there has been an increasing number of published epidemiological and interventional studies on human populations linking the high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, enriched in simple sugars such as fructose and glucose, to the high prevalence of chronic metabolic and related cardiovascular diseases [1] [2] [3] [4]. These diseases include dyslipidemia [5] [6], gout [7], hypertension [8] [9], obesity [10] [11], insulin resistance [12] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [10] [13] [14] [15]. High energy intake, lack of adequate energy compensation through a proportional decrease in the amount of energy ingested as solid foods, and the special metabolism of fructose, have been reported to contribute to this possible causal association [2] [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages has been linked to a high prevalence of chronic metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that a short course of fructose supplementation as a liquid solution induces glucose intolerance in female rats. In the present work, we characterized the fructose-driven changes in the liver and the molecular pathways involved. To this end, female rats were supplemented or not with liquid fructose (10%, w/v) for 7 or 14 days. Glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed, and the expression of genes related to insulin signaling, gluconeogenesis and nutrient sensing pathways was evaluated. Fructose-supplemented rats showed increased plasma glucose excursions in glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests and reduced hepatic expression of several genes related to insulin signaling, including insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2). However, the expression of key gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, was reduced. These effects were caused by an inactivation of hepatic forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) due to an increase in its acetylation state driven by a reduced expression and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Further contributing to FoxO1 inactivation, fructose consumption elevated liver expression of the spliced form of X-box-binding-protein-1 as a consequence of an increase in the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin 1 and protein 38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK). Liquid fructose affects both insulin signaling (IRS-2 and FoxO1) and nutrient sensing pathways (p38-MAPK, mTOR and SIRT1), thus disrupting hepatic insulin signaling without increasing the expression of key gluconeogenic enzymes.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 02/2014; 25(2):250-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.10.014 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Pectins are recognized and exploited for their gelling properties and may be beneficial in slowing glucose absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract [96], but since they are highly fermentable [37,49–51] they do not contribute to stool bulk. A role for fruit fiber could be inferred indirectly from the inconsistent and small effect of fruit juice consumption on T2D incidence [12] [97] [98], and the possible physical effects of removing fiber on glycemia and satiety [99]. However, fruit and vegetable fiber is rarely eaten on its own, thus it is not possible to separate fiber benefits from those due to the rest of the fruit and vegetables. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Higher whole grain cereal intakes are associated with substantially lower risks of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. These reduced risks have been established in large prospective studies that now include millions of person-years of follow-up. We analyze the results of 11 major prospective studies to provide recommendations about whole grain consumption. The following review establishes the amount of whole grains that should ideally be consumed based on prospective evidence; defines the nature of whole grains; identifies that the whole grain evidence is robust and not due to confounding; and provides a detailed assessment of several potential mechanisms for the effect of whole grains on health. We draw the following conclusions. Firstly, to maintain health, 40 grams or more of whole grains should be consumed daily. This is about a bowl of whole grain breakfast cereal daily, but 80% of the population does not achieve this. Secondly, aleurone in bran is a critical grain component generally overlooked in favor of indigestible fiber. Live aleurone cells constitute 50% of millers' bran. They store minerals, protein, and the antioxidant ferulic acid, and are clearly more than just indigestible fiber. Finally, we suggest potential roles for magnesium, zinc, and ferulic acid in the development of chronic disease. If the results of prospective studies were applied to the life-style practices of modern societies there exists the potential for enormous personal health and public financial benefits. © 2013 BioFactors, 2013.
    BioFactors 05/2013; 39(3). DOI:10.1002/biof.1077 · 3.00 Impact Factor
Show more