To evaluate brain metabolism in subjects with partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) utilizing (1)H MRS.
Single-voxel (1)H MRS was performed on 25 medically-stable adults with partial OTCD, and 22 similarly aged controls. Metabolite concentrations from frontal and parietal white matter (FWM, PWM), frontal gray matter (FGM), posterior cingulate gray matter (PCGM), and thalamus (tha) were compared with controls and IQ, plasma ammonia, glutamine, and disease severity.
Cases ranged from 19 to 59 years; average 34 years; controls ranged from 18 to 59 years; average 33 years. IQ scores were lower in cases (full scale 111 vs. 126; performance IQ 106 vs. 117). Decreased myoinositol (mI) in FWM (p=0.005), PWM (p<0.001), PCGM (p=0.003), and tha (p=0.004), identified subjects with OTCD, including asymptomatic heterozygotes. Glutamine (gln) was increased in FWM (p<0.001), PWM (p<0.001), FGM (p=0.002), and PCGM (p=0.001). Disease severity was inversely correlated with [mI] in PWM (r=-0.403; p=0.046) and directly correlated with [gln] in PCGM (r=0.548; p=0.005). N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) was elevated in PWM (p=0.002); choline was decreased in FWM (p=0.001) and tha (p=0.002). There was an inverse relationship between [mI] and [gln] in cases only. Total buffering capacity (measured by [mI/mI+gln] ratio, a measure of total osmolar capacity) was inversely correlated with disease severity in FWM (r=-0.479; p=0.018), PWM (r=-0.458; p=0.021), PCGM (r=-0.567; p=0.003), and tha (r=-0.345; p=0.037).
Brain metabolism is impaired in partial OTCD. Depletion of mI and total buffering capacity are inversely correlated with disease severity, and serve as biomarkers.
"Deficient protein metabolism in OTCD results in episodes of hyperammonemia (HA) with acute elevations of ammonia that cause substantial injury to the brain's white matter [Gropman et al., 2010]. Additionally, ''asymptomatic'' OTCD is associated with altered neurochemical profile [Gropman, et al., 2008] in an array of cognitive subdomains based in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), such as working memory, executive cognition and attention [Gropman and Batshaw 2004; Gropman et al., 2008]. These deficits contribute significantly to disability in OTCD [Gyato et al., 2004] despite normal global IQ [Gropman and Batshaw, 2004]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This mixed convection study compares the fluid and thermal
behaviour of the developing flow in distributed heated modules along the
lower wall of a rectangular channel at high Reynolds number in the
presence (mixed) and absence (forced) of a buoyancy force generated due
to the temperature difference between heated modules and the fluid near
these modules. The time averaged mass, momentum and energy equations
along with the k-ε equations for turbulent closure are solved. A
special explicit method, MAC (marker and cell), is used to solve these
governing equations. In this paper, a comparative study of the
distribution of Nusselt number and pressure drop on the lower channel
wall in forced and mixed convection cases is reported. The detailed
analysis is presented through streamline plots, turbulent kinetic energy
contours, pressure contours and temperature contours. It can be seen
from this study that although the buoyancy force has a significant
effect on the nature of the flow and thermal fields, the average Nusselt
number and coefficient of pressure over each module is nearly the same
for natural and mixed convection cases. The heat transfer coefficient
and the pressure coefficient increase with module height but decrease
with an increase in module length in both cases
Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems, 1998. ITHERM '98. The Sixth Intersociety Conference on; 06/1998
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