Article

Preterm birth and maternal smoking in pregnancy are strong risk factors for aortic narrowing in adolescence

Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Acta Paediatrica (Impact Factor: 1.84). 09/2008; 97(8):1080-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00890.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Preterm transition from foetal to neonatal circulation might permanently alter aortic growth and development. To test this hypothesis, we measured aortic dimensions in adolescents born very preterm.
Eighty-six healthy 15-year-old subjects were studied; 45 born very preterm at an average gestational age of 28 weeks (birth weight < 1500 g) and 41 controls born at term. Using a pulse-gated Fiesta sequence on a 1.5T MR-scanner, 25 images were collected within the heart cycle at several levels of the descending aorta. End-diastolic cross-sectional areas were semi-automatically calculated using an active contour model.
Subjects born preterm had narrower aortic lumen. The difference was 16% in the thoracic and 19% in the abdominal aorta after adjustment for body surface area and gender (p < 0.001). Maternal smoking in pregnancy was also found to be an independent risk factor for aortic narrowing in the offspring (difference 10%-13% throughout the aorta vs. offspring to nonsmoking mothers). Adolescents born preterm had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures; however, blood pressures did not correlate with aortic size or maternal smoking during pregnancy.
Very preterm birth and exposure to maternal smoking in foetal life are independent and strong risk factors for general aortic narrowing 15 years after birth.

0 Followers
 · 
66 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigations into how perinatal growth and intrauterine environment may ‘programme’ risk of later cardiovascular disease have been ongoing for over two decades. One of the more recent outcomes of these studies is the observation that certain pregnancy-related conditions, such as preterm birth, have an unusually large impact on the long-term cardiovascular health of the offspring. In the present paper, we review the current literature of how preterm birth affects the long-term cardiovascular structure and function of the offspring, considering three major areas of investigation: firstly, outlining the long-term cardiovascular phenotypic changes in preterm-born individuals; secondly, investigating factors related to preterm birth that may be modifying cardiovascular phenotype, such as preeclampsia, perinatal interventions, and physiological disturbances; and thirdly, the expected clinical relevance of these cardiovascular changes. This review discusses the importance of continued research focused on the mechanistic understanding of these cardiovascular alterations in order to develop specific primary prevention strategies.
    Early Human Development 09/2014; 90(11). DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.08.012 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Globally, 11% of infants are born preterm. In adulthood, individuals born preterm are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic basis of this remains unknown. Clinically overt cardiovascular disease may be preceded by altered cardiac autonomic activity characterised by increased sympathetic activity and/or reduced parasympathetic activity. Thus, altered cardiac autonomic activity in survivors of preterm birth may underlie later cardiovascular risk. To investigate the impact of gestational age on cardiac autonomic activity in juvenile and adult sheep. Singleton-bearing ewes were randomised antenatally to spontaneous term birth (TC; n=73) or corticosteroid induced preterm birth (PT; n=60). Cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed using heart rate variability analysis in juvenile and adult offspring. Preterm birth in adult males was associated with altered sympatho-vagal modulation (LFnu: PT 64±4 vs. TC 49±4, p<0.05; LogLF/HF: PT 1.8±0.1 vs. TC 1.5±0.1, p<0.05) and reduced parasympathetic modulation (LogRMSSD: PT 2.9±0.2 vs. TC 3.4±0.1, p<0.05; LogNN50: PT 0.3±0.4 vs. TC 1.6±0.4, p<0.05). Within the range of term birth, each one-day increment in gestational age was associated with a decrement in LFnu in juvenile females and with a decrement in LFnu and LF/HF ratio, but an increment in RMSSD and NN50 in adult females. Cardiac autonomic function in adult sheep is affected in a sex-specific manner by gestational age at birth, even within the term range. Altered cardiac autonomic function may contribute to increased later cardiovascular morbidity in those born preterm.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e85468. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085468 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth is associated with overall cardiovascular mortality in young adulthood, but which specific conditions that underlie this association is unknown. We studied mortality and morbidity from cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease in individuals born preterm. In a nationwide Swedish study, we included 1,306,943 individuals without congenital malformations born between 1983 and 1995, followed from 15 years of age to December 31st, 2010. Of these, 73,489 (5.6 %) were born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), after adjusting for maternal characteristics and birth weight for gestational age. Of 955 incident cases of cerebrovascular disease, 58 (6.1 %) occurred in preterm born subjects. The corresponding numbers of ischemic heart disease cases were 180 and 13 (7.2 %), respectively. Birth before 32 weeks was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk of cerebrovascular disease; adjusted HR, (95 % CI) = 1.89 (1.01-3.54) compared to term born individuals, whereas individuals born at 32-36 weeks were not at increased risk. Preterm birth was not associated with later ischemic heart disease; no cases of ischemic heart disease were recorded among those born before 32 weeks and the HR (95 % CI) for those born at 32-36 weeks of gestation was 1.45 (0.81-2.57), compared to term-born individuals. Birth before 32 weeks is associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease in young adulthood. Our data suggest that cardiovascular health promotion in follow-up programs after very preterm birth may be beneficial.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10654-014-9892-5 · 5.15 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download