Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Stroke: Utilization Variances and Impact of Procedural Volume on Inpatient Mortality
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: An increasing number of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy procedures are being performed for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. This study examines variances in the allocation of these procedures in the United States at the hospital level. We investigate operative volume across centers performing mechanical revascularization and establish that procedural volume is independently associated with inpatient mortality. METHODS: Data was collected using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database in the United States for 2008. Medical centers performing mechanical thrombectomy were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, and procedural volumes were evaluated according to hospital size, location, control/ownership, geographic characteristics, and teaching status. Inpatient mortality was compared for hospitals performing ≥10 mechanical thrombectomy procedures versus those performing <10 procedures annually. After univariate analysis identified the factors that were significantly related to mortality, multivariable logistic regression was performed to compare mortality outcome by hospital procedure volume independent of covariates. RESULTS: Significant allocation differences existed for mechanical thrombectomy procedures according to hospital size (P < .001), location (P < .0001), control/ownership (P < .0001), geography (P < .05), and teaching status (P < .0001). Substantial procedural volume was independently associated with decreased mortality (P = .0002; odds ratio 0.49) when adjusting for demographic covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The number of mechanical thrombectomy procedures performed nationally remains relatively low, with a disproportionate distribution of neurointerventional centers in high-volume, urban teaching hospitals. Procedural volume is associated with mortality in facilities performing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke patients. These results suggest a potential benefit for treatment centralization to facilities with substantial operative volume.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mechanical revascularization procedures performed for treatment of acute ischemic stroke have increased in recent years. Data suggest association between operative volume and mortality rates. Understanding procedural allocation and patient access patterns is critical. Few studies have examined these demographics. METHODS: Data were collected from the 2008 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke and the subset of individuals who underwent mechanical thrombectomy were characterized by race, payer source, population density, and median wealth of the patient's zip code. Demographic data among patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy procedures were examined. Stroke admission demographics were analyzed according to thrombectomy volume at admitting centers and patient demographics assessed according to the thrombectomy volume at treating centers. RESULTS: Significant allocation differences with respect to frequency of mechanical thrombectomy procedures among stroke patients existed according to race, expected payer, population density, and wealth of the patient's zip code (P < .0001). White, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander patients received endovascular treatment at higher rates than black and Native American patients. Compared with the white stroke patients, black (P < .001), Hispanic (P < .001), Asian/Pacific Islander (P < .001), and Native American stroke patients (P < .001) all demonstrated decreased frequency of admission to hospitals performing mechanical thrombectomy procedures at high volumes. Among treated patients, blacks (P = .0876), Hispanics (P = .0335), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (P < .001) demonstrated decreased frequency in mechanical thrombectomy procedures performed at high-volume centers when compared with whites. While present, socioeconomic disparities were not as consistent or pronounced as racial differences. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate variances in endovascular acute stroke treatment allocation according to racial and socioeconomic factors in 2008. Efforts should be made to monitor and address potential disparities in treatment utilization.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 05/2013; 23(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2013.03.036 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object As health care administrators focus on patient safety and cost-effectiveness, methodical assessment of quality outcome measures is critical. In 2008 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) published a series of "never events" that included 11 hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) for which related costs of treatment are not reimbursed. Cerebrovascular procedures (CVPs) are complex and are often performed in patients with significant medical comorbidities. Methods This study examines the impact of patient age and medical comorbidities on the occurrence of CMS-defined HACs, as well as the effect of these factors on the length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization charges in patients undergoing common CVPs. Results The HACs occurred at a frequency of 0.49% (1.33% in the intracranial procedures and 0.33% in the carotid procedures). Falls/trauma (n = 4610, 72.3% HACs, 357 HACs per 100,000 CVPs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (n = 714, 11.2% HACs, 55 HACs per 100,000 CVPs) were the most common events. Age and the presence of ≥ 2 comorbidities were strong independent predictors of HACs (p < 0.0001). The occurrence of HACs negatively impacts both LOS and hospital costs. Patients with at least 1 HAC were 10 times more likely to have prolonged LOS (≥ 90th percentile) (p < 0.0001), and 8 times more likely to have high inpatient costs (≥ 90th percentile) (p < 0.0001) when adjusting for patient and hospital factors. Conclusions Improved quality protocols focused on individual patient characteristics might help to decrease the frequency of HACs in this high-risk population. These data suggest that risk adjustment according to underlying patient factors may be warranted when considering reimbursement for costs related to HACs in the setting of CVPs.Journal of Neurosurgery 06/2014; 121(3):1-7. DOI:10.3171/2014.4.JNS131253 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to assess the geographic proximity of patients with stroke in California to centers that performed specific threshold volumes of mechanical embolectomy procedures each year. We identified all patients who were hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke at all nonfederal acute care hospitals in California from 2009 to 2010, and all hospitals that performed any mechanical embolectomy procedures by case volume during the same period, using nonpublic data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We computed geographic service areas around each hospital on the basis of prespecified ground transport distance thresholds. We then calculated the proportion of hospitalized patients with stroke who lived within service areas for centers that performed a low volume and high volume of mechanical embolectomy procedures each year. During the 2-year study period, 15% (53/360) of hospitals performed at least 1 mechanical embolectomy for acute stroke, but only 19% (10/53) performed >10 cases per year. Most hospitalized patients with stroke (94%) lived within a 2-hour transport time (65 miles) to a hospital that performed ≥1 procedure during the 2-year period. Approximately 93% of the patients with stroke who received mechanical embolectomy lived within 20 miles from an embolectomy-capable hospital compared with 7% of those who lived >20 miles. In California, most patients with stroke lived within reasonable ground transport distances from centers that performed ≥1 mechanical embolectomy in a 2-year period. The probability of receiving mechanical embolectomy for acute ischemic stroke was associated with living in close geographic proximity to these hospitals. © 2015 The Authors.Stroke 02/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.007735 · 6.02 Impact Factor