Cutaneous and Disseminated Blastomycosis: A Pediatric Case Series
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Pediatric Dermatology (Impact Factor: 1.02). 09/2012; 30(1). DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01799.x
Blastomycosis is a rare fungal infection that most often initially infects the lungs and can progress to disseminated involvement of the skin, bones, and central nervous system (CNS). Pediatric blastomycosis constitutes a small portion of total cases, but delay in diagnosis may result in significant morbidity. Seventeen pediatric cases of blastomycosis were identified at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from 1999 to 2009 through retrospective chart review; 53% had evidence of dissemination (bone, skin, or CNS) confirmed by culture. Six cases presented with cutaneous lesions, and five of these were found to have other systemic involvement. These five nonimmunosuppressed cases of primary pulmonary disease with cutaneous involvement plus dissemination to bone or the CNS are reported in detail. The diagnosis of blastomycosis in children is often delayed, and dissemination by the time of diagnosis may be more common than in adults. Cutaneous dissemination may occur in immunocompetent children, may indicate underlying systemic involvement, and can be more readily identified than symptoms of bony or neurologic involvement. These reported cases indicate the importance of dermatologists recognizing and investigating all potentially involved organ systems when a patient presents with characteristic skin lesions with or without a history of respiratory illness.
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ABSTRACT: International travel is increasing. As fungal infections associated with travel are rare diseases, they are often underestimated and misdiagnosed. Thus, updated knowledge in this area is of key importance for physicians not only for pretravel counselling but also for the management of patients upon their return. We present an update of data published in 2012 and 2013. We present an overview of epidemiological changes, especially new endemic areas, and the implications of climate and natural disasters. Through experimental and clinical data, new insights into the pathophysiology of fungal infections associated with travel have been obtained, especially for Cryptococcus spp. Recently published diagnostic tools could lead to faster and more accurate diagnosis. Lastly, recent prognostic and therapeutic data are emphasized.Current Fungal Infection Reports 12/2013; 7(4). DOI:10.1007/s12281-013-0151-0
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ABSTRACT: An increasing trend of reports of rare fungal diseases has been observed to be mainly associated with the substantial increase of high-risk immunocompromised children, as well as with the selective pressure of antifungal drugs. On the other hand, recent reports have shown that several species of these rare fungi may also cause infections in immunocompetent children without obvious underlying conditions. The clinical spectrum of these infections, and most importantly their outcome, varies greatly, implying for a rather heterogenic group of pediatric infections. Various types of superficial and subcutaneous fungal infections, as well as systemic and disseminated life-threatening infections, have been reported. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of rare fungal diseases in children remains a great challenge. Several treatment options have been used, ranging from localized to combination treatment with extensive surgical excision and long-term antifungal therapy. We review contemporary data of rare fungal infections in pediatric patients focusing on epidemiology, mycology, management and outcome, published during the last three years.Current Fungal Infection Reports 03/2014; 8(1):21-36. DOI:10.1007/s12281-014-0175-0
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