Classification and grading of noninvasive and invasive neoplasms of the urothelium

Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy.
Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology (Impact Factor: 0.49). 06/2012; 34(3):111-9.
Source: PubMed


The classification and grading of the noninvasive, intraepithelial neoplasms of the urothelium are based on the morphological pattern of growth, i.e., papillary and flat (and endophytic), and on their degree of architectural and cytologic abnormalities. Recent advances in the morphological, molecular and quantitative evaluation of these lesions have contributed to the refinement of the current classification and grading schemes. However, some controversies on the precise criteria and terminology, especially when the papillary lesions are concerned, are still present.

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Available from: Liang Cheng, Mar 26, 2014
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