Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality
Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and Oncology, Section of Endocrinology, University of Naples "Federico II", Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.Journal of endocrinological investigation (Impact Factor: 1.45). 09/2012; 35(8):782-94. DOI: 10.1007/BF03345805
GH and PRL, although not considered as 'classical' sexual hormones, could play a role in the endocrine control of sexual function both in men and women. Physiologically, PRL seems to be involved in the central control of sexual behavior and activity, by modulating mainly the effects of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems on sexual function. Indeed, circulating PRL levels increase after orgasm and may potentially play a role in the acute regulation of further sexual arousal following orgasm both in men and women. On the other hand, either short-term or long-term PRL increase can modulate central nervous system areas involved in the control of sexual function and, peripherally, can directly influence mechanisms of penile erection in men, and presently only as an hypothesis, mechanisms related to the sexual response of genitalia in women. Furthermore, chronic hyperprolactinemia is classically associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Successful treatment of chronic hyperprolactinemia generally restores normal sexual function both in men and women although this effect is not only related to relapse of gonadal function. Hypoprolactinemia is recently recognised as a possible risk factor of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction while a possible role on female sexual function is not known. The physiological role of GH on sexual function is not fully elucidated. GH is an important regulator of hypothalamuspituitary- gonadal axis and seems to participate in the regulation of the sexual response of genitalia in men, and potentially also in women. Sexual function in men and women with GH deficiency (GHD) and GH excess, particularly in acromegaly, is scantily studied and GH- or IGF-I-dependent effects are difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, a decrease of desire and arousability both in men and women, together with an impairment of erectile function in men, have been described both in patients with GHD and acromegaly, although it is not clear whether they are dependent directly on the hormone defect or excess or they are consequence of the hypogonadism or the different clinical complications or the physical disfigurement and psychological imbalance, which are associated with the diseases, and are potentially affecting sexual function. Data on beneficial effects of GH replacement therapy and specific surgical or pharmacological approach for acromegaly are far to be fully elucidated although restoring normal GH/IGF-I levels have been associated to improvement of sexual function.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adolescents are one of the highest groups at risk for sustaining both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeat TBI (RTBI). Consequences of endocrine dysfunction following TBI have been routinely explored in adults, but studies in juveniles are limited and show an incidence rate of endocrine dysfunction in 16 - 61% in patients, 1 - 5 years after injury. Similar to adults the most commonly affected axis is growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF-1). Despite TBI being the #1 cause of morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population there are currently no experimental studies specifically addressing the occurrence of pituitary dysfunction in adolescents. The present study investigated whether a sham, single injury or 4 repeat injuries (24 hr interval) delivered to adolescent rats resulted in disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Circulating levels of basal GH and IGF-1 were measured at baseline, 24 hrs, 72 hrs, 1 week and 1 month after injury and vascular permeability of the pituitary gland was quantified via Evans Blue dye extravasation. Changes in weight and length of animals were measured as a potential consequence of GH and IGF-1 disruption. The results from the current study demonstrate that RTBI results in significant acute and chronic decreases in circulation GH and IGF-1, reduction in weight gain and growth and an increase in Evans Blue dye extravasation in the pituitary compared to sham and single injury animals. RTBI causes significant disruption of the GH/IGF-1 axis that may ultimately affect normal cognitive and physical development during adolescence.Journal of neurotrauma 07/2013; 30(23). DOI:10.1089/neu.2013.2990 · 3.71 Impact Factor
Article: Male Endocrine Dysfunction[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed.Urologic Clinics of North America 02/2014; 41(1):39-53. DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2013.08.010 · 1.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prolactin (PRL) exhibits many physiological functions with a wide effects on the central nervous system including stress responses. Our study were aimed to investigate the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) - which is a good animal model of depression - on PRL receptor (PRLR) expression in the rat brain. Rats were exposed to CMS for two weeks and subsequently to CMS in combination with imipramine (IMI) treatment for five consecutive weeks. Behavioral deficit measured in anhedonic animals is a reduced intake of sucrose solution. Two weeks of CMS procedure allowed to select animals reactive to stress and displaying anhedonia, and the group which is considered as stress-non-reactive as far as behavioral measures are concerned. In this group the elevated level of PRL in plasma was observed, decrease in dopamine release in the hypothalamus, increase in [125I]PRL binding to PRLR in the choroid plexus, increase of mRNA encoding long form of PRLR in the arcuate nucleus and the decrease of mRNA encoding its short form, and decrease in the mRNA encoding dopamine D2 receptor. All these alterations indicate these parameters as involved in the phenomenon of stress-resilience. The prolongation of CMS procedure for additional five weeks shows the form of habituation to the stressful conditions. The most interesting result however, was the up-regulation of PRLR in the choroid plexus of rats subjected to full CMS procedure combined with treatment with IMI, what may speak in favor of the role of this receptor in the mechanisms of antidepressant action.Brain research 03/2014; 1555. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.01.031 · 2.84 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.