Does the ‘Scottish effect’ apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study

Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
BMJ Open (Impact Factor: 2.27). 09/2012; 2(5). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001957
Source: PubMed


Background and objectives
Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers.

Design, setting, population, measures and analysis
This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups.

For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups.

The ‘Scottish effect’ does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low cancer rates.

Download full-text


Available from: Raj S Bhopal,
1 Follower
163 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Routine data are needed to monitor ethnic health inequalities. The proportion of hospital discharge records with ethnicity information has been improving in Scotland. The aim of this paper is to assess whether routine data can provide valid comparisons of admission rates by ethnic group. Design/methodology/approach: Routine hospital admissions data in four NHS Boards were analysed by ethnic group and sex to compare incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). A previous study linking health and census ethnicity information for 2001-2003 provided the comparison standard. Findings: There was a similar risk of AMI for South Asian compared to non-South Asian people in 2009-2011 and 2001-2003. South Asian people and Pakistani women had higher risk of CHD than White Scottish people. The Other White group had higher and the White Irish lower risk of AMI admission in comparison to 2001-2003 data. Research limitations/implications: The comparison used a different age range, did not include community deaths, covered a part of Scotland rather than the whole, and may have been affected by changes to denominators, which were based on the UK census 2001. Originality/value: The similar IRRs for AMI from census linkage in 2001-2003 and NHS data from 2009-2011 suggest routine ethnicity data are valid in some NHS Boards. Analyses can reveal previously unknown variations to justify health improvement action. To maximise the precision of analyses, data completeness needs to be increased and sustained.
    Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care 09/2012; 5(3):98-107. DOI:10.1108/17570981211319393
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesJump to sectionObjectivesDesignResultsConclusionIntroductionMethodResultsDiscussionKey messagesThe presence and extent of mental health inequalities in Scotland is unclear. We investigated ethnic variations in psychiatric hospitalisations and compulsory treatment in relation to socioeconomic indicators.DesignJump to sectionObjectivesDesignResultsConclusionIntroductionMethodResultsDiscussionKey messagesIn a retrospective cohort study design, using data linkage methods, we examined ethnic variations in psychiatric [any psychiatric, mood (affective), and psychotic disorders) hospitalisations and use of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (Emergency Detentions (ED), Short-Term Detentions (STD) and Compulsory Treatment Orders (CTO)] using age (and sex for compulsory treatment), car ownership, and housing tenure adjusted risk ratios (RR). 95% CIs for the data below exclude the reference White Scottish group value (100).ResultsJump to sectionObjectivesDesignResultsConclusionIntroductionMethodResultsDiscussionKey messagesCompared to the White Scottish population, Other White British men and women had lower hospitalisation from any psychiatric disorder (RR = 77.8, 95% CI: 71.0–85.2 and 85.8, 95% CI: 79.3–92.9), mood disorder (91.2, 95% CI: 86.9–95.8 and 83.6, 95% CI: 75.1–93.1), psychotic disorder (67.1, 95% CI: 59.9–75.2 and 78.5, 95% CI: 67.6–91.1), CTO (84.6, 95% CI: 72.4–98.9) and STD (88.2, 95% CI: 78.6–99.0). Any Mixed Background women had higher hospitalisation from any psychiatric disorder (137.2, 95% CI: 110.9–169.6) and men and women had a higher risk of psychotic disorder (200.6, 95% CI: 105.7–380.7 and 175.5, 95% CI: 102.3–301.2), CTO (263.0, 95% CI: 105.4–656.3), ED (245.6, 95% CI: 141.6–426.1) and STD (311.7, 95% CI: 190.2–510.7). Indian women had lower risk of any psychiatric disorder (43.2, 95% CI: 28.0–66.7). Pakistani men had lower risk of any psychiatric disorder (78.7, 95% CI: 69.3–89.3), and higher risk of mood disorders (117.5, 95% CI: 100.2–137.9). Pakistani women had similar risk of any psychiatric and mood disorder however, a twofold excess risk of psychotic disorder (227.3, 95% CI: 195.8–263.8). Risk of STD was higher in South Asians (136.9, 95% CI: 109.0–171.9). Chinese men and women had the lowest risk of hospitalisation for any psychiatric disorder (35.3, 95% CI: 23.2–53.7 and 44.5, 95% CI: 30.3–65.5) and mood disorder (51.5, 95% CI: 31.0–85.4 and 47.5, 95% CI: 23.2–97.4) but not psychotic disorders and higher risk for CTO (181.4, 95% CI: 121.0–271.0). African women had higher risk of any psychiatric disorder (139.4, 95% CI: 119.0–163.2). African men and women had the highest risk for psychotic disorders (230.8, 95% CI: 177.8–299.5 and 240.7, 95% CI: 163.8–353.9) and were also overrepresented in STD (214.3, 95% CI: 122.4–375.0) and CTO (486.6, 95% CI: 231.9–1021.1). Differences in hospitalisations were not fully attenuated when adjusted for car ownership and housing tenure and the effect of these adjustments varied by ethnic group.ConclusionJump to sectionObjectives DesignResultsConclusion IntroductionMethod ResultsDiscussionKey messagesOur data show disparate patterns of psychiatric hospitalisations by ethnic group in Scotland providing new observations concerning the mental health care experience of Chinese, Mixed background and White subgroups not fully explained by socioeconomic indicators. For South Asian and Chinese groups in particular, our data indicate under and late utilisation of mental health services. These data call for monitoring and review of services.
    Ethnicity and Health 07/2013; 19(2). DOI:10.1080/13557858.2013.814764 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective Inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality by country of birth are large and poorly understood. However, these data misclassify UK-born minority ethnic groups and provide little detail on whether excess risk is due to increased incidence, poorer survival or both. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting General resident population of Scotland. Participants All those residing in Scotland during the 2001 Census were eligible for inclusion: 2 972 120 people were included in the analysis. The number still residing in Scotland at the end of the study in 2008 is not known. Primary and secondary outcome measures As specified in the analysis plan, the primary outcome measures were first occurrence of admission or death due to myocardial infarction and time to event. There were no secondary outcome measures. Results Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence risk ratios (95% CIs) relative to white Scottish populations (100) were highest among Pakistani men (164.1 (142.2 to 189.2)) and women (153.7 (120.5, 196.1)) and lowest for men and women of Chinese (39.5 (27.1 to 57.6) and 59.1 (38.6 to 90.7)), other white British (77 (74.2 to 79.8) and 72.2 (69.0 to 75.5)) and other white (83.1 (75.9 to 91.0) and 79.9 (71.5 to 89.3)) ethnic groups. Adjustment for educational qualification did not eliminate these differences. Cardiac intervention uptake was similar across most ethnic groups. Compared to white Scottish, 28-day survival did not differ by ethnicity, except in Pakistanis where it was better, particularly in women (0.44 (0.25 to 0.78)), a difference not removed by adjustment for education, travel time to hospital or cardiac intervention uptake. Conclusions Pakistanis have the highest incidence of AMI in Scotland, a country renowned for internationally high cardiovascular disease rates. In contrast, survival is similar or better in minority ethnic groups. Clinical care and policy should focus on reducing incidence among Pakistanis through more aggressive prevention.
    BMJ Open 09/2013; 3(9):e003415-e003415. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003415 · 2.27 Impact Factor
Show more