Article

The role of functionally defective rare germline variants of sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) in autoimmune Addison's disease.

E Gan, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 3BZ, United Kingdom.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.69). 09/2012; 167(6). DOI: 10.1530/EJE-12-0579
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background
Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a rare condition with a complex genetic basis. A panel of rare and functionally defective genetic variants in the sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) gene has recently been implicated in several common autoimmune conditions. We performed a case–control study to determine whether these rare variants are associated with a rarer condition, AAD.

Method
We analysed nine SIAE gene variants (W48X, M89V, C196F, C226G, R230W, T312M, Y349C, F404S and R479C) in a United Kingdom cohort of 378 AAD subjects and 387 healthy controls. All samples were genotyped using Sequenom iPlex chemistry to characterise primer extension products.

Results
A heterozygous rare allele at codon 312 (312*M) was found in one AAD patient (0.13%) but was not detected in the healthy controls. The commoner, functionally recessive variant at codon 89 (89*V) was found to be homozygous in two AAD patients but was only found in the heterozygous state in controls. Taking into account all nine alleles examined, 4/378 (1.06%) AAD patients and 1/387 (0.25%) healthy controls carried the defective SIAE alleles, with a calculated odds ratio of 4.13 (95% CI 0.44–97.45, two-tailed P value 0.212, NS).

Conclusion
We demonstrated the presence of 89*V homozygotes and the 312*M rare allele in the AAD cohort, but overall, our analysis does not support a role for rare variants in SIAE in the pathogenesis of AAD. However, the relatively small collection of AAD patients limits the power to exclude a small effect.

0 Followers
 · 
99 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) is an enzyme that negatively regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor signalling and is required for the maintenance of immunological tolerance in mice. Heterozygous loss-of-function germline rare variants and a homozygous defective polymorphic variant of SIAE were identified in 24/923 subjects of European origin with relatively common autoimmune disorders and in 2/648 controls of European origin. All heterozygous loss-of-function SIAE mutations tested were capable of functioning in a dominant negative manner. A homozygous secretion-defective polymorphic variant of SIAE was catalytically active, lacked the ability to function in a dominant negative manner, and was seen in eight autoimmune subjects but in no control subjects. The odds ratio for inheriting defective SIAE alleles was 8.6 in all autoimmune subjects, 8.3 in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis, and 7.9 in subjects with type I diabetes. Functionally defective SIAE rare and polymorphic variants represent a strong genetic link to susceptibility in relatively common human autoimmune disorders.
    Nature 07/2010; 466(7303):243-7. DOI:10.1038/nature09115 · 42.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a complex pathogenesis in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors have a role. Rare mutations in the TREX1 gene, the major mammalian 3'-5' exonuclease, have been reported in sporadic SLE cases. Some of these mutations have also been identified in a rare pediatric neurological condition featuring an inflammatory encephalopathy known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). We sought to investigate the frequency of these mutations in a large multi-ancestral cohort of SLE cases and controls. A total of 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both common and rare variants, across the TREX1 gene, were evaluated in ∼8370 patients with SLE and ∼7490 control subjects. Stringent quality control procedures were applied, and principal components and admixture proportions were calculated to identify outliers for removal from analysis. Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. P-values, false-discovery rate q values, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The estimated frequency of TREX1 mutations in our lupus cohort was 0.5%. Five heterozygous mutations were detected at the Y305C polymorphism in European lupus cases but none were observed in European controls. Five African cases incurred heterozygous mutations at the E266G polymorphism and, again, none were observed in the African controls. A rare homozygous R114H mutation was identified in one Asian SLE patient, whereas all genotypes at this mutation in previous reports for SLE were heterozygous. Analysis of common TREX1 SNPs (minor allele frequency (MAF)>10%) revealed a relatively common risk haplotype in European SLE patients with neurological manifestations, especially seizures, with a frequency of 58% in lupus cases compared with 45% in normal controls (P=0.0008, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.25-2.39). Finally, the presence or absence of specific autoantibodies in certain populations produced significant genetic associations. For example, a strong association with anti-nRNP was observed in the European cohort at a coding synonymous variant rs56203834 (P=2.99E-13, OR=5.2, 95% CI=3.18-8.56). Our data confirm and expand previous reports and provide additional support for the involvement of TREX1 in lupus pathogenesis.
    Genes and immunity 06/2011; 12(4):270-9. DOI:10.1038/gene.2010.73 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of the association between autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) and a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PTPN22 gene (C1858T, pR620W; SNP ID no. rs2476601) have shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine this association using additional cohorts of AAD subjects from the UK and Poland. DNA samples were obtained from UK and Polish AAD subjects (n = 251 and 87, respectively) and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 429 and 236, respectively). Genotyping for the C1858T PTPN22 marker was performed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Meta-analysis of the results, together with those from three other populations, was performed using RevMan v5.0 software. In 251 UK AAD subjects the frequency of the PTPN22 1858T allele was 12.2% compared to 7.8% in healthy UK controls; P = 0.008. Similarly, in 87 Polish AAD subjects the PTPN22 1858T allele was found in 19.5% of alleles compared to 11.7% in healthy Polish subjects; P = 0.010. A meta-analysis, combining these result with published data for three other populations, involving 797 AAD subjects and 2032 controls in total, showed that the 1858T allele was associated with AAD susceptibility with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.72; P = 5.6 x 10(-5)], under a fixed-effects model. This study confirms the association between the PTPN22 1858T allele and AAD in an expanded UK cohort and in the previously unstudied Polish population. This meta-analysis allows for the first time a reliable estimate of the strength of effect of this autoimmune disease susceptibility allele across different European Caucasian populations.
    Clinical Endocrinology 09/2008; 70(3):358-62. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03380.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
Show more