Article

A kinase inhibitor screen identifies small-molecule enhancers of reprogramming and iPS cell generation.

1] Program for RNA Biology, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. [2] Chemical Biology Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.
Nature Communications (Impact Factor: 10.74). 09/2012; 3:1085. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form embryonic stem cell-like induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but the process suffers from low efficiency and the underlying molecular mechanisms that control reprogramming remain poorly understood. Here we perform an inhibitor screen to identify kinases that enhance, or present a barrier to, reprogramming. In particular, inhibitors of p38, inositol trisphosphate 3-kinase, and Aurora A kinase potently enhance iPSC generation, and iPSCs derived from inhibitor-treated somatic cells are capable of reaching a fully reprogrammed state. Knockdown of target kinases by short interfering RNAs confirms that they function as barrier genes. We show that Aurora A kinase, which functions in centrosome activity and spindle assembly, is highly induced during reprogramming and inhibits Akt-mediated inactivation of GSK3β, resulting in compromised reprogramming efficiency. Together, our results not only identify new compounds that enhance iPSC generation but also shed new light on the function of Aurora A kinase in the reprogramming process.

0 Followers
 · 
257 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional models of psoriatic skin occupy an intermediate position between cell cultures and animal-based models. Unlike cultured cells, they closely imitate changes in cell differentiation and metabolism, which are characteristic of psoriatic lesional skin. Because 3-dimensional models exclude nonspecific influences of the surrounding organs and tissues, in some studies they are preferred over animal-based models. Moreover, 3-dimensional models can be used for drug screening and testing new pharmacological approaches. In this paper, we discuss how 3-dimensional models of psoriatic lesional skin were created and developed. We also analyze their prospects in experimental studies of psoriasis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cells Tissues Organs 02/2015; DOI:10.1159/000369925 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Direct reprogramming technology has emerged as an outstanding technique for the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and various specialized cells directly from somatic cells of different species. Recent studies dissecting the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming have methodologically improved the quality, ease and efficiency of reprogramming and eliminated the need for genome modifications with integrating viral vectors. With these advancements, direct reprogramming technology has moved closer to clinical application. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the cutting-edge findings regarding distinct barriers of reprogramming to pluripotency, strategies to enhance reprogramming efficiency, and chemical reprogramming as one of the non-integrating approaches in iPS cell generation. In addition to direct transdifferentiation, pluripotency factor-induced transdifferentiation or cell activation and signaling directed (CASD) lineage conversion is described as a robust strategy for the generation of both tissue-specific progenitors and clinically relevant cell types. Then, we consider the possibility that a combined method of inhibition of roadblocks (e.g. p53, p21, p57, Mbd3, etc.), and application of enhancing factors in a chemical reprogramming paradigm would be a safe, reliable and effective approach in pluripotent reprogramming and transdifferentiation. Furthermore, with respect to the state of native, aberrant, and target gene regulatory networks in reprogrammed cell populations, CellNet is reviewed as a computational platform capable of evaluating the fidelity of reprogramming methods and refining current engineering strategies. Ultimately, we conclude that a faithful, highly efficient and integration-free reprogramming paradigm would provide powerful tools for research studies, drug-based induced regeneration, cell transplantation therapies and other regenerative medicine purposes. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/019455
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are a major cause of cancer-related deaths. During the last two decades, several studies have shown amplification and overexpression of Aurora kinase A (AURKA) in several GI malignancies. These studies demonstrated that AURKA not only plays a role in regulating cell cycle and mitosis, but also regulates a number of key oncogenic signaling pathways. Although AURKA inhibitors have moved to phase III clinical trials in lymphomas, there has been slower progress in GI cancers and solid tumors. Ongoing clinical trials testing AURKA inhibitors as a single agent or in combination with conventional chemotherapies are expected to provide important clinical information for targeting AURKA in GI cancers. It is, therefore, imperative to consider investigations of molecular determinants of response and resistance to this class of inhibitors. This will improve evaluation of the efficacy of these drugs and establish biomarker based strategies for enrollment into clinical trials, which hold the future direction for personalized cancer therapy. In this review, we will discuss the available data on AURKA in GI cancers. We will also summarize the major AURKA inhibitors that have been developed and tested in pre-clinical and clinical settings.
    Molecular Cancer 05/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12943-015-0375-4 · 5.40 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from