Development and Application of a Multimodal Contrast Agent for SPECT/CT Hybrid Imaging

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Bioconjugate Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.82). 09/2011; 22(9). DOI: 10.1021/bc200162r

ABSTRACT Hybrid or multimodality imaging is often applied in order to take advantage of the unique and complementary strengths of individual imaging modalities. This hybrid noninvasive imaging approach can provide critical information about anatomical structure in combination with physiological function or targeted molecular signals. While recent advances in software image fusion techniques and hybrid imaging systems have enabled efficient multimodal imaging, accessing the full potential of this technique requires development of a new toolbox of multimodal contrast agents that enhance the imaging process. Toward that goal, we report the development of a hybrid probe for both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging that facilitates high-sensitivity SPECT and high spatial resolution CT imaging. In this work, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a novel intravascular, multimodal dendrimer-based contrast agent for use in preclinical SPECT/CT hybrid imaging systems. This multimodal agent offers a long intravascular residence time (t1/2 = 43 min) and sufficient contrast-to-noise for effective serial intravascular and blood pool imaging with both SPECT and CT. The colocalization of the dendritic nuclear and X-ray contrasts offers the potential to facilitate image analysis and quantification by enabling correction for SPECT attenuation and partial volume errors at specified times with the higher resolution anatomic information provided by the circulating CT contrast. This may allow absolute quantification of intramyocardial blood volume and blood flow and may enable the ability to visualize active molecular targeting following clearance from the blood.

Download full-text


Available from: Zhen W Zhuang, Aug 05, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoprobes for magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging were developed for cancer diagnosis. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to HACE for the chelation of gadolinium (Gd) as an MR contrast agent. Cy5.5 was also conjugated to the HACE backbone as a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging dye. The self-assembled HACE-based nanoprobe, Cy5.5-HACE-DTPA-Gd, exhibited a uniformly distributed particle size and morphological shape. The HACE-based nanoprobe did not induce serious cytotoxicity in U87-MG (low expression of CD44 receptor) and SCC7 (high expression of CD44 receptor) cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of the HACE-based nanoprobe was higher in SCC7 cells than in U87-MG cells, indicating an HA-CD44 receptor interaction. In vitro MR signal enhancement of the HACE-based nanoprobe was confirmed compared with a commercial formulation (Magnevist). Moreover, in vivo MR contrast enhancement of the HACE-based nanoprobe in the tumor region was verified in an SCC7 tumor xenograft mouse model. The tumor targetability of the developed nanoprobe was monitored by an NIRF imaging study, and improved accumulation of the nanoprobe in the tumor region was observed. Therefore, this HACE-based dual-imaging nanoprobe can be used to make a more accurate diagnosis of cancer based on its passive and active tumor targeting strategies.
    Journal of Controlled Release 06/2012; 162(1):111-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.06.011 · 7.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most widely used clinical imaging modalities. In order to increase the sensitivity of CT, small iodinated compounds are used as injectable contrast agents. However, the iodinated contrast agents are excreted through the kidney and have short circulation times. This rapid renal clearance not only restricts in vivo applications that require long circulation times but also sometimes induces serious adverse effects related to the excretion pathway. In addition, the X-ray attenuation of iodine is not efficient for clinical CT that uses high-energy X-ray. Due to these limitations, nano-sized iodinated CT contrast agents have been developed that can increase the circulation time and decrease the adverse effects. In addition to iodine, nanoparticles based on heavy atoms such as gold, lanthanides, and tantalum are used as more efficient CT contrast agents. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses made in nano-sized CT contrast agents.
    Advanced Materials 05/2013; 25(19). DOI:10.1002/adma.201300081 · 17.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is an X-ray-based whole-body imaging technique that is widely used in medicine. Clinically approved contrast agents for CT are iodinated small molecules or barium suspensions. Over the past seven years there has been a great increase in the development of nanoparticles as CT contrast agents. Nanoparticles have several advantages over small molecule CT contrast agents, such as long blood-pool residence times and the potential for cell tracking and targeted imaging applications. Furthermore, there is a need for novel CT contrast agents, owing to the growing population of renally impaired patients and patients hypersensitive to iodinated contrast. Micelles and lipoproteins, a micelle-related class of nanoparticle, have notably been adapted as CT contrast agents. In this review we discuss the principles of CT image formation and the generation of CT contrast. We discuss the progress in developing nontargeted, targeted and cell tracking nanoparticle CT contrast agents. We feature agents based on micelles and used in conjunction with spectral CT. The large contrast agent doses needed will necessitate careful toxicology studies prior to clinical translation. However, the field has seen tremendous advances in the past decade and we expect many more advances to come in the next decade. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 01/2014; 9(1):37-52. DOI:10.1002/cmmi.1551 · 3.33 Impact Factor
Show more