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Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia

Analytical Chemistry - ANAL CHEM 04/2002; 39(8). DOI: 10.1021/ac60252a045
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    ABSTRACT: Previous field studies have supported the absence of a nutritional cost outweighing the beneficial anthelmintic effect of supplementing the diet of grazing goats with tannin-containing heather. In order to fur-ther research in this regard, an experiment was conducted indoors with 18 does artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The goats were offered lucerne hay for 6 weeks and then assigned to 3 treat-ments (diets): lucerne hay (L), 70% lucerne hay + 30% heather containing 64 g of tannic acid equivalents/kg DM (LH), and LH + polyethylene glycol (35 g PEG/animal and day; LH+PEG). Rumen fluid was obtained from each animal after 10 (period 1) and 36 (period 2) days, and afterwards total faecal output was collected for 5 days to assess gastrointestinal nematode egg excretion, and apparent digestibilities of DM and CP. Total daily faecal egg excretion was reduced in does consuming heather (491,216 for L vs 234,311 and 194,356 for LH+PEG and LH; P<0.05). Volatile fatty acid concentrations were greater in those animals (115 vs 102 vs 84 for LH, LH+PEG and L, respectively, P<0.05) but the use of PEG increased DM and CP digestibilities (P<0.05). In vitro gas production results suggest an adaptation of the rumen microbiota in goats supple-mented with heather that was not reflected in differences between digestibility coefficients in periods 1 and 2. The fact that LH+PEG significantly improved the apparent digestibilities of DM (6%) and CP (13%) when compared to LH, but with both reducing egg excretion in the same proportion, might suggest that the thresh-old of tannins requested to obtain anthelmintic effects is probably quite low.
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    ABSTRACT: camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensisEucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Swietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophyllaSwietenia macrophylla (King.) are not native to Bangladesh, but they are widely used in agroforestry practices for their commercial values. Selection of tree species with efficient return of nutrients is a vital challenge in agroforestry practices to maintain the soil fertility for sustainable crop production. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted on nutrients (N, P and K) leaching from leaf litter of E. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensis and S. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophylla in laboratory condition. The initial dry weight of leaf litter of E. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensis and S. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophylla were significantly (p<0.05) decreased to 18% and 10%, respectively at the end of the experiment. Eucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camalduEucalyptus camaldulensislensislensislensislensislensis showed comparatively (t-test, p<0.05) higher rate of weight loss, conductivity and TDS (Total Dissolved Solid) of leached water. Comparatively, higher amount of N (48 μg g-1-1) was released from leaf litter of E. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensisE. camaldulensis whereas higher amount of P (0.8 μg g-1-1) and K (23 mg g-1-1) from S. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophylla, leaf litter and both the species showed similar pattern of nutrient (K>N>P) release during the leaching process. Nutrients (N, P and K) concentration in leaf litter of these species showed significant (p<0.05) negative exponential curvilinear relationships with the weight loss. Result of this study suggests that E.E. camaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamalduleniscamaldulensiscamaldulensiscamaldulensis is the best in terms of N return and S. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophyllaS. macrophylla the best in terms of P and K return.
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