Pulmonary Hypertension in the Intensive Care Unit
ABSTRACT Pulmonary hypertension, a condition that can lead to right ventricular failure and hemodynamic collapse, can be very challenging to manage in critically ill patients who require the intensive care unit. Because of the underlying structure of the right ventricle, significant increases in right ventricular afterload initiate a vicious cycle of degenerating right ventricular function, giving rise to right ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, inciting factors such as sepsis and arrhythmias can exacerbate this process. Important management principles include close monitoring of hemodynamics with both noninvasive and invasive modalities, optimization of right ventricular preload, maintenance of systemic blood pressure, enhancement of right ventricular contractility, reduction of right ventricular afterload, and reversal of identifiable inciting factors. The goal of this review is to discuss these key concepts in managing this difficult patient population.
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ABSTRACT: Right ventricular failure complicates several commonly encountered conditions in the intensive care unit. Right ventricular dilation and paradoxic movement of the interventricular septum on echocardiography establishes the diagnosis. Right heart catheterization is useful in establishing the specific cause and aids clinicians in management. Principles of treatment focus on reversal of the underlying cause, optimization of right ventricular preload and contractility, and reduction of right ventricular afterload. Mechanical support with right ventricular assist device or veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used in select patients who fail to improve with optimal medical therapy.Critical Care Clinics 07/2014; 30(3):475-498. DOI:10.1016/j.ccc.2014.03.003 · 2.50 Impact Factor
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 03/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2013.11.017 · 1.06 Impact Factor