As the result of the high prevalence of comorbidities and conventional risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), most patients belong to the highest cardiovascular disease risk category, and have a target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of <70 mg/dL. Because substantial residual risk persists at LDL-C <70 mg/dL, a more comprehensive control of non-LDL-C and particles was recommended in the joint 2008 American Diabetes Association/American College of Cardiology Consensus.
To ascertain, in statin-treated T2DM patients belonging to this greatest-risk group, with on-statin LDL-C <70 mg/dL, (1) the proportion of patients meeting all three critical levels (LDL-C <70 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] <100 mg/dL, apoB <80 mg/dL) and (2) the variables associated with target attainment versus nonattainment.
Among 675 unselected patients with T2DM, 367 were both at very high cardiometabolic risk and taking statins; 118 of these patient had LDL-C levels <70 mg/dL. Patients meeting all three criteria (LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB; n = 79; all three at goal group) were compared with those only reaching LDL-C (n = 49; only LDL-C at goal group).
LDL-C was 54 (12) for the all three at goal group versus 57 (10) mg/dL for the only LDL-C at goal group (NS). The two groups were similar regarding age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, renal function and micro-/macroangiopathy prevalence. A statin plus fibrate was given to 16% of patients in the all three at goal group and 32% in the only LDL-C at goal group. The two groups did not differ in baseline (prestatin) LDL-C, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C, except for pre-/post-lipid-lowering drug(s) triglycerides (TG): 177 (95)/118 (56) for all three at goal versus 279 (134)/ 241 (103) mg/dL for only LDL-C at goal (P = .0230 and P = .0001). The only LDL-C at goal group had lower HDL-C (vs. all three at goal): 41 (12) vs. 47 (14) mg/dL (P = .0237), with atherogenic dyslipidemia [hypo-HDL-C + hyper-TG] prevalence of 35% in the all three at goal versus 56% in the only LDL-C at goal group (P < .0001). log(TG)/HDL-C was 0.049 (0.021) for all three at goal versus 0.063 (0.021) for only LDL-C at goal (P < .0001). The LDL-C/apoB ratio was 0.92 (0.24) for all three at goal vs. 0.67 (0.18) for only LDL-C at goal (P < .0001), suggestive of smaller/denser LDL.
The presence of atherogenic dyslipidemia was associated with a failure to meet all three critical modifiable targets for hypercholesterolemia, such a nonachievement being found in a large proportion (one-third) of very-high risk T2DM patients with very-low on-statin LDL-C. Attainment of all three targets will require (1) titration/permutation of statins, (2) lifestyle (re)inforcement; and/or (3) statin-fibrate bitherapy.