Outcomes associated with timing of maintenance treatment for COPD exacerbation
ABSTRACT Objectives: To examine the impact of timing of maintenance treatment initiation (early vs delayed) on risk of future exacerbations and costs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Study Design: Retrospective cohort design using data (January 1, 2003, through June 30, 2009) from a large, US-based integrated pharmacy and medical claims database. Methods: Administrative claims from January 1, 2003, through June 30, 2009, were used. Methotrexate (MTx)-naive patients (aged >40 years) with at least 1 COPD-related hospitalization/emergency department (ED) visit were included (discharge date was index date). Patients initiating MTx within the first 30 days and 31 to 180 days postindex were classified into early and delayed cohorts, respectively. Clinical and economic outcomes related to COPD exacerbations were assessed for 1 year post-index and compared between cohorts using regression models controlling for baseline characteristics. The incremental effect on outcomes of every 30-day delay in MTx initiation up to 6 months after the index event was also assessed. Results: The majority of the 3806 patients (78.6%) received early MTx. A significantly higher proportion of patients in the delayed cohort had a COPD-related hospitalization/ED visit compared with the early cohort (25.6% vs 18.0%; P <.001). After controlling for baseline differences, the delayed cohort had a 43% (P <.001) higher risk of a future COPD-related hospitalization/ED visit compared with the early cohort. Every 30-day delay was associated with 9% risk increase (P = .002). Treatment delay also increased COPD-related costs ($5012 vs $3585; P lt;.001). Conclusion: Early MTx initiation is associated with reduced risk of future COPD exacerbations and lower costs.
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with long-acting bronchodilator (LABD) medications is recommended by the 2014 Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The primary objective of this study was to examine LABD prescription fills after a COPD-related hospitalization. This retrospective observational study used claims from Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. Patients (age ≥40, commercial; age ≥65, Medicare supplemental) had a first hospitalization with a primary COPD diagnosis between April 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 (index hospitalization) and were continuously enrolled for 1 year before and 9 months after hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to pre-index and/or post-index pharmacy claims. A total of 27,738 patients had an index hospitalization and met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of those, 19,783 patients had COPD as a primary or secondary diagnosis during the year before index hospitalization and were included in the analysis. Approximately one quarter of the patients (26.32%) did not fill a prescription for an LABD or short-acting bronchodilator both 90 days before and 90 days after hospitalization. During the 90-day pre-index period, 40.57% of patients filled an LABD (with or without a short-acting bronchodilator) prescription. Over half of the patients (56.88%) filled an LABD prescription at some point during the 180-day post-index period, but, of those, a significantly greater proportion of patients filled an LABD prescription in the 1- to 90-day post-index period than in the 91- to 180-day post-index period (51.27% versus 43.66%; P<0.0001). A significant proportion of COPD patients in this study did not fill an LABD prescription before hospitalization for COPD. Moreover, hospitalization did not appear to greatly impact LABD initiation. Lastly, patients who did not fill an LABD prescription within the first 90 days posthospitalization were not likely to fill an LABD prescription later. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that many patients with COPD are undertreated.International Journal of COPD 05/2014; 9:431-9. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S59322