Therapeutic hypothermia has proven neuroprotective effects in global cerebral ischemia. Indications for hypothermia induction include cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia. The two general methods of induced hypothermia are either surface cooling or endovascular cooling. Hypothermia should be induced as early as possible to achieve maximum neuroprotection and edema blocking effect. Endovascular cooling has the benefit of shorter time to reach target temperature but catheter insertion requires expertise and training, which may be a barrier to widespread availability. The optimum method of cooling is yet to be determined but a multimodal approach is necessary to address three phases of cooling: induction, maintentance, and rewarm. Specifying core practitioners who are well-versed in established guidelines can help integrate the multidisciplinary team that is needed to successfully implement cooling protocols. Reducing shivering to make heat exchange more efficient with tighter temperature control enables quicker time to target temperature and avoids rewarming which can lead to inadvertent increase in intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. Promising applications but yet to be determined is whether hypothermia treatment can improve outcomes in acute ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin substitutes are increasingly produced in tissue engineering, but still the understanding of the physiological skin revascularization process is lacking. To study in vivo conditions we recently introduced a mouse model, in which we already characterized the angiogenic changes within the wound bed and the skin graft. The aim of this study was to identify the origination of the vasculature during skin graft revascularization in vivo and to track vessel development over time.
We created a crossover wild-type/GFP skin transplantation model, in which each animal carried the graft from the other strain. The preparation of the modified dorsal skin fold chamber including cross-over skin grafting was performed in male C57BL/6J wild-type mice (n=5) and C57BL/6-Tg(ACTB-EGFP)1O sb/J mice (n=5). Intravital microscopy in 12 areas of wild-type and GFP skin grafts was performed daily over a time period of 10 days.
Graft reperfusion started after 48-72 h. After reperfusion GFP-positive structures from the wound bed were visible in the graft capillaries with the highest density in the center of the graft. Overall, we observed a replacement of existing graft capillaries with vessels from the wound bed in 68% of the vessels. Of note, vessel replacement occurred in almost 100% of graft vessels in the periphery. Additionally, vessels within the graft showed a temporary angiogenic response between days 3-8, which originated predominantly from the autochthonous graft vasculature, but also contained already grown-in vessels from the wound bed.
These in vivo data indicate an early in-growth of angiogenic bed vessels into the existing vascular channels of the graft and subsequent centripetal replacement. Additionally we observed a temporary angiogenic response of the autochthonous capillaries of the skin graft with contribution from bed vessels. These findings further support the theory that sprouting angiogenesis from the wound bed in combination with the replacement of existing graft vessels are the key factors in skin graft taking. Thus, manufacturing of skin substitutes should be aimed at providing pre-formed vascular channels within the construct to improve vascularization.
Microvascular Research 07/2011; 82(3):237-45. DOI:10.1016/j.mvr.2011.07.003 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts profound neuroprotective actions against ischemia-induced brain damage in rodent models of global and focal ischemia. This review focuses on the neuroprotective efficacy of post-ischemic administration of E2 and non-feminizing estrogen analogs in the aging brain, with an emphasis on studies in animals subjected to a long-term loss of circulating E2. Clinical findings from the Women's Health Initiative study as well as data from animal studies that used long-term, physiological levels of E2 treatment are discussed in this context. We summarize major published findings that highlight the effective doses and timing of E2 treatment relative to onset of ischemia. We then discuss recent findings from our laboratory showing that under some conditions the aging hippocampus remains responsive to E2 and some neuroprotective non-feminizing estrogen analogs even after prolonged periods of hormone withdrawal. Possible membrane-initiated signaling mechanisms that may underlie the neuroprotective actions of acutely administered E2 are also discussed. Based on these findings, we suggest that post-ischemic treatment with high doses of E2 or certain non-feminizing estrogen analogs may have great therapeutic potential for treatment of brain damage and neurodegeneration associated with ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the major mediator of excitotoxic neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. Under severe ischemic conditions, glutamate transporters can functionally reverse to release glutamate, thereby inducing further neuronal injury. Hypothermia has been shown to protect neurons from brain ischemia. However, the mechanism(s) involved remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) mediating glutamate release during brain ischemia-reperfusion injury under hypothermic conditions. Neuron/astrocyte co-cultures were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) at various temperatures for 2 h, and cell viability was assayed 12 h after reoxygenation. PI and MAP-2 staining demonstrated that hypothermia significantly decreased neuronal injury. Furthermore, [(3)H]-glutamate uptake assays showed that hypothermia protected rat primary cortical cultures against OGD reoxygenation-induced injury. Protein levels of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, which is primarily responsible for the clearance of extracellular glutamate, were also found to be reduced in a temperature-dependent manner. In contrast, expression of GLT-1 in astrocyte-enriched cultures was found to significantly increase following the addition of neuron-conditioned medium maintained at 37 °C, and to a lesser extent with neuron-conditioned medium at 33 °C. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effects of hypothermia against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury involve down-regulation of astrocytic GLT-1, which mediates the reverse transport of glutamate. Moreover, this process may be regulated by molecules secreted by stressed neurons.
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