Article

Spitzer 70 Micron Source Counts in GOODS-North

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 6.73). 12/2008; 647(1):L9. DOI: 10.1086/507149

ABSTRACT We present ultradeep Spitzer 70 μm observations of GOODS-North (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey). For the first time, the turnover in the 70 μm Euclidean-normalized differential source counts is observed. We derive source counts down to a flux density of 1.2 mJy. From the measured source counts and fluctuation analysis, we estimate a power-law approximation of the faint 70 μm source counts of dN/dS S-1.6, consistent with that observed for the faint 24 μm sources. An extrapolation of the 70 μm source counts to zero flux density implies a total extragalactic background light (EBL) of 7.4 ± 1.9 nW m-2 sr-1. The source counts above 1.2 mJy account for about 60% of the estimated EBL. From fluctuation analysis, we derive a photometric confusion level of σc = 0.30 ± 0.15 mJy (q = 5) for the Spitzer 70 μm band.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
59 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attenuation of high-energy gamma-rays by pair production with ultraviolet, optical and infrared (IR) extragalactic background light (EBL) photons provides a link between the history of galaxy formation and high-energy astrophysics. We present results from our latest semi-analytic models (SAMs), which employ the main ingredients thought to be important to galaxy formation and evolution, as well as an improved model for reprocessing of starlight by dust to mid- and far-IR wavelengths. These SAMs are based upon a Λ cold dark matter hierarchical structural formation scenario, and are successful in reproducing a large variety of observational constraints such as number counts, luminosity and mass functions and colour bimodality. Our fiducial model is based upon a Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5-year cosmology, and treats dust emission using empirical templates. This model predicts a background flux considerably lower than optical and near-IR measurements that rely on subtraction of zodiacal and galactic foregrounds, and near the lower bounds set by number counts of resolvable sources at a large number of wavelengths. We also show the results of varying cosmological parameters and dust attenuation model used in our SAM. For each EBL prediction, we show how the optical depth due to electron-positron pair production is affected by redshift and gamma-ray energy, and the effect of gamma-ray absorption on the spectra of a variety of extragalactic sources. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our work, comparisons to other models and key measurements of the EBL and a discussion of how the burgeoning science of gamma-ray astronomy will continue to help constrain cosmology. The low EBL flux predicted by our fiducial model suggests an optimistic future for further studies of distant gamma-ray sources.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2012; 422(4):3189-3207. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-rays from distant sources suffer attenuation through pair-production with low energy photons from the diffuse extragalactic photon fields in the ultraviolet (UV) to far-infrared (FIR) (commonly referred to as extragalactic background light; EBL). When modeling the intrinsic spectra of the VHE γ-ray sources it is crucial to correctly account for the attenuation. Unfortunately, direct measurements of the EBL are difficult and the knowledge about the EBL over certain wavelength ranges is poor. To calculate the EBL attenuation, usually predictions from theoretical models are used. Recently, the limits on the EBL from direct and indirect methods have narrowed down the possible EBL range and many of the previous models are in conflict with these limits. We propose a new generic EBL density (not a complete model), which is in compliance with the new EBL limits. EBL evolution with redshift is included in the calculation in a very simple but effective ad hoc way. Properties of this generic EBL are discussed.
    International Journal of Modern Physics D 01/2012; 17(09). · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with simple analytic recipes describing the absorption and re-emission of starlight by dust in the interstellar medium of galaxies. We use the resulting models to predict galaxy counts and luminosity functions from the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to the submillimetre, from redshift five to the present, and compare with an extensive compilation of observations. We find that in order to reproduce the rest-UV and optical luminosity functions at high redshift, we must assume an evolving normalization in the dust-to-metal ratio, implying that galaxies of a given bolometric luminosity (or metal column density) must be less extinguished than their local counterparts. In our best-fitting model, we find remarkably good agreement with observations from rest ˜1500 Å to ?m. At longer wavelengths, most dramatically in the submillimetre, our models underpredict the number of bright galaxies by a large factor. The models reproduce the observed total IR luminosity function fairly well. We show the results of varying several ingredients of the models, including various aspects of the dust attenuation recipe, the dust emission templates and the cosmology. We use our models to predict the integrated extragalactic background light, and compare with an observationally motivated extragalactic background light EBL model and with other available observational constraints.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 423(3):1992-2015. · 5.52 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from