Radial artery (RA) grafts are an attractive second arterial conduit after the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, long-term outcomes and the need for subsequent reintervention have not been defined.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of our single institution's 16-year experience with 1851 consecutive patients (average age, 58 years; 82% men, 36% diabetic) undergoing primary, isolated CABG with the LITA, RA, and saphenous vein as needed. Average grafts per patient were 3.8, with 2.4 arterial grafts per patient. Survival was determined using the Social Security Death Index. Grafts were nonpatent if they had a >50% stenosis, a string sign, or were occluded. Five patients (0.3%) died in hospital and 0.8% had a myocardial infarction, 1.1% a stroke, and 0.6% renal failure. Kaplan-Meier-estimated 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival was 99%, 96%, 89%, and 75%, respectively. Of the cohort, 278 symptomatic patients underwent cardiac catheterization at our institution an average of 5.0±3.8 years (range, 0.1-12 years) after CABG. Overall RA (n=420 grafts) patency was 82% and SV (n=364 grafts) patency, 47% (P<0.0001). LITA (n=287 grafts including 9 sequential grafts) patency was 85% and right internal thoracic artery (n=15 grafts) patency was 80% (P=0.6). RA patency was not different from LITA patency (P=0.3). Overall freedom from catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, and CABG was 85%, 97%, and 99%, respectively.
RA grafting is a highly effective revascularization strategy providing excellent short and long-term outcomes with very low rates of reintervention. RA patency is similar to LITA patency and is much better than SV patency. RA grafting should be more widely utilized in patients undergoing CABG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was first used in the late 1960s. This revolutionary procedure created hope among ischemic heart disease patients. Multiple conduits are used and the golden standard is the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. Although all approaches were advocated by doctors, the use of saphenous vein grafts became the leading approach used by the majority of cardiac surgeons in the 1970s. The radial artery graft was introduced at the same time but was not as prevalent due to complications. It was reintroduced into clinical practice in 1989. The procedure was not well received initially but it has since shown superiority in patency as well as long-term survival after CABG. This review provides a summary of characteristics, technical features and patency rates of the radial artery graft in comparison with venous conduits. Current studies and research into radial artery grafts and saphenous vein grafts for CABG are explored. However, more studies are required to verify the various findings of the positive effects of coronary artery bypass grafting with the help of radial arteries on mortality and long-lasting patency.
"Its excellent handling versatility combined with the simultaneous harvesting of the LITA has led many groups to adopt the RA as the second conduit. Angiographic studies support the superior long‐term patency of the RA compared with the SVG.15–16 Achouh and colleagues in 2010 demonstrated excellent long‐term RA patency (83%) in CABG up to 20 years postoperatively,10 but this was not significantly different compared with the RITA (87%) or SVG (81%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical benefits of the left internal thoracic artery-to-left anterior descending coronary artery graft are well established in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). However, limited data are available regarding the long-term outcome of the radial artery (RA) as a secondary conduit over the established standard of the saphenous venous graft.
We compared the 12-year survival outcome in a set of propensity-matched CABG patients who received either the RA or the saphenous vein as a secondary conduit. A multivariable logistic regression that included 18 baseline characteristics was used to define the propensity of receiving an RA graft. The propensity model resulted in 260 matched pairs who underwent first-time isolated CABG from 1996 to 2001 with similar preoperative characteristics (C statistic=0.86). The cumulative 12-year survival estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method was higher for the RA graft patients (hazard ratio 0.76; P=0.03). This survival advantage was especially significant in diabetics (P=0.005), in women (P=0.02), and in the elderly (P=0.04.) The protective effect appeared beginning at year 5 post surgical intervention.
The RA as a secondary conduit provided superior long-term survival after CABG, especially in diabetic patients, women, and the elderly. This effect was most pronounced >5 years after surgery.
Journal of the American Heart Association 08/2013; 2(4):e000266. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.113.000266 · 4.31 Impact Factor
"Concerns about long term patency of the rather long bypass grafts have to be addressed in the future. Avoiding the use of vein grafts improves long term durability and limits donor site complications . And, for especially the third-re-do cases autologous vein graft material can be simply inexistent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with extensive coronary artery disease often require re-do coronary artery bypass grafting. However, autologous bypass material is sometimes sparse. Since long term patency of arterial graft material is superior to venous bypass grafting, we developed a technique to perform re-do total arterial coronary artery bypass grafting extending the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) with the radial artery (RA) in an end to end fashion to gain the needed length in patients with and without an open left thoracic artery (LITA).
We performed this approach in 27 consecutive patients (age: 67.93 +/- 7.51 years). Data was analyzed retrospectively. 19 operations were first re-op, 6 were second re-op and two were third re-op procedures.
Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 115.42 minutes (+/-31.92 minutes) with one OPCAB procedure, and clamp time was 55.09 minutes (+/-22.41 minutes) excluding 10 procedures performed on beating heart. Bypass grafting included the RCA, Cx and LAD. An average of 1.96 anastomoses were performed in each patient. Complication rate was low with one intra-operative apoplexy and one prolonged wound healing after harvest of the radial artery. One patient needed long term pulmonary assist. There was no intra-operative or early postoperative death.
The operational technique of elongation of the internal thoracic artery with the radial artery proved to be safe and feasible with acceptable operation times for a re-do procedure. We recommend this as an additional option to existing methods to perform a complete arterial revascularization mainly in patients with open left internal thoracic artery to LAD bypass.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 07/2013; 8(1):173. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-8-173 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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