Myocardin regulates BMP10 expression and is required for heart development.
ABSTRACT Myocardin is a muscle lineage-restricted transcriptional coactivator that has been shown to transduce extracellular signals to the nucleus required for SMC differentiation. We now report the discovery of a myocardin/BMP10 (where BMP10 indicates bone morphogenetic protein 10) signaling pathway required for cardiac growth, chamber maturation, and embryonic survival. Myocardin-null (Myocd) embryos and embryos harboring a cardiomyocyte-restricted mutation in the Myocd gene exhibited myocardial hypoplasia, defective atrial and ventricular chamber maturation, heart failure, and embryonic lethality. Cardiac hypoplasia was caused by decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation accompanied by a dramatic increase in programmed cell death. Defective chamber maturation and the block in cardiomyocyte proliferation were caused in part by a block in BMP10 signaling. Myocardin transactivated the Bmp10 gene via binding of a serum response factor-myocardin protein complex to a nonconsensus CArG element in the Bmp10 promoter. Expression of p57kip2, a BMP10-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was induced in Myocd-/- hearts, while BMP10-activated cardiogenic transcription factors, including NKX2.5 and MEF2c, were repressed. Remarkably, when embryonic Myocd-/- hearts were cultured ex vivo in BMP10-conditioned medium, the defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation and p57kip2 expression were rescued. Taken together, these data identify a heretofore undescribed myocardin/BMP10 signaling pathway that regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and apoptosis in the embryonic heart.
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ABSTRACT: Throughout the hibernation season, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) experiences extreme fluctuations in heart rate, metabolism, oxygen consumption, and body temperature, along with prolonged fasting and immobility. These conditions necessitate different functional requirements for the heart, which maintains contractile function throughout hibernation, and the skeletal muscle, which remains largely inactive. The adaptations used to maintain these contractile organs under such variable conditions serves as a natural model to study a variety of medically relevant conditions including heart failure and disuse atrophy. To better understand how two different muscle tissues maintain function throughout the extreme fluctuations of hibernation we performed Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing of cDNAs to compare the transcriptome of heart and skeletal muscle across the circannual cycle. This analysis resulted in the identification of 1,076 and 1,466 differentially expressed genes in heart, and skeletal muscle respectively. In both heart and skeletal we identified a distinct cold-tolerant mechanism utilizing peroxisomal metabolism to make use of elevated levels of unsaturated depot fats. The skeletal muscle transcriptome also shows an early increase in oxidative capacity necessary for the altered fuel utilization and increased oxygen demand of shivering. Expression of the fetal gene expression profile is used to maintain cardiac tissue, either through increasing myocyte size, or proliferation of resident cardiomyocytes, while skeletal muscle function and mass are protected through transcriptional regulation of pathways involved in protein turnover. This study provides insight into how two functionally distinct muscles maintain function under the extreme conditions of mammalian hibernation. Copyright © 2014, Physiological Genomics.Physiological Genomics 01/2015; DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00108.2014 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may increase the incidence of restenosis and predispose to atherosclerosis. The lesions of restenosis and atherosclerosis often contain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with high rates of proliferation and apoptosis. One of the immediate-early (IE) gene products of HCMV--IE2 affects transcriptional activities of some cellular factors in SMCs, including myocardin. In this study, we studied the effects of IE2 and myocardin on PI3K pathway inducer wortmannin induced apoptosis in rat aortic SMCs. We show that the transcriptional activity of myocardin on Mcl-1 promoter is enhanced by co-expression of HCMV IE2 in rat aortic SMCs; and the expressions of mRNA and protein of antiapoptotic genes-Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 are upregulated by IE2 alone and co-transfection of myocardin and IE2, but decreased by myocardin-specific shRNA in rat aortic SMCs. We further demonstrate that co-expression of myocardin and HCMV IE2 declines apoptotic cell numbers and caspase-3 activities induced by serum starvation plus wortmannin in rat aortic SMCs. The results suggest that HCMV IE2 enhances myocardin-mediated survival of rat aortic SMCs under serum deprivation and PI3-kinase inhibition, partly via activation of Mcl-1's antiapoptosis effect. Our study connects HCMV IE2 to myocardin-induced transcriptional program for rat aortic SMCs survival and proliferation, involving in HCMV related restenosis and atherosclerosis.Virus Research 08/2014; 192. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.08.007 · 2.83 Impact Factor
Article: Myocardin in biology and disease[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myocardin (MYOCD) is a potent transcriptional coactivator that functions primarily in cardiac muscle and smooth muscle through direct contacts with serum response factor (SRF) over cis elements known as CArG boxes found near a number of genes encoding for contractile, ion channel, cytoskeletal, and calcium handling proteins. Since its discovery more than 10 years ago, new insights have been obtained regarding the diverse isoforms of MYOCD expressed in cells as well as the regulation of MYOCD expression and activity through transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational processes. Curiously, there are a number of functions associated with MYOCD that appear to be independent of contractile gene expression and the CArG-SRF nucleoprotein complex. Further, perturbations in MYOCD gene expression are associated with an increasing number of diseases including heart failure, cancer, acute vessel disease, and diabetes. This review summarizes the various biological and pathological processes associated with MYOCD and offers perspectives to several challenges and future directions for further study of this formidable transcriptional coactivator.01/2015; 29(1):3-19. DOI:10.7555/JBR.