Effect of Pemetrexed on Innate Immune Killer Cells and Adaptive Immune T Cells in Subjects With Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas
ABSTRACT Baseline levels of innate and adaptive immune cell functions were studied in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effects of pemetrexed were measured at 7 and 14 days after initial therapy then 14 days after combination therapy with gemcitabine. Pretherapy levels of absolute numbers of natural killer (NK) cells positively correlated with survival. Cytolytic units of NK activity correlated positively with NK cell numbers. Pemetrexed decreased NK cytolytic units to significance when combined with gemcitabine. Pemetrexed increased intracellular accumulation of interferon gamma (IFNγ) in NK cells that correlated negatively with survival. Addition of gemcitabine decreased IFNγ-producing NK cells to baseline. Memory (CD45RO) T cells enumerated at baseline correlated negatively with survival but were decreased by pemetrexed therapy. Memory T cells were increased in subjects with greater B7-H3 expression in tumor tissue, whereas OX40-activated total T cells and helper T-cell subset were decreased. FoxP3, CD8 T cells correlated positively with progression-free interval and survival. In conclusion, innate NK-cell immunity and FoxP3, CD8 T cells seemed beneficial to pancreatic cancer patients. Higher levels of B7-H3 expression in pancreatic tumors were detrimental to effective immunity. Although pemetrexed therapy increased activation of a subset of NK cells to produce IFNγ, addition of gemcitabine abated those responses, decreasing IFNγ-producing NK cells, whereas NK cells producing interleukin-2 without IFNγ at this timepoint positively correlated with survival. Innate immunity and adaptive immunity thus are important in defense against pancreatic cancer. Progression-free interval and survival were longer than observed in a phase III trial where gemcitabine preceded pemetrexed suggesting that a larger trial of pemetrexed preceding gemcitabine is warranted.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in non-specific immune response in different cancers, including pancreatic cancer. However the anti-tumor effect of NK cells decreases during pancreatic cancer progression. The regulatory pathways by which NK cells facilitate tumor immune escape are unclear, therefore our purpose was to investigate the roles of the contributory factors. Methods: NK cells isolated from fresh healthy peripheral blood were co-cultured with normal human pancreatic ductal cells hTERT-HPNE and human pancreatic cancer cell lines SW1990 and BxPc-3 in vitro. Then NK cell function was determined by Flow cytometric analysis of surface receptors and cytotoxic granules in NK cells, NK cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of cytokines. Expression level of MMP-9, IDO and COX-2 in hTERT-HPNE and SW1990 cells were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Statistical differences between data groups were determined by independent t-tests using SPSS 19.0 software. Results: Our results showed that NK cell function was significantly downregulated following exposure to pancreatic cancer cells compared to normal pancreatic cells, as demonstrated by lower expressions of activating surface receptors (NKG2D, DNAM-1, NKp30 and NKp46) and cytotoxic granules (Perforin and Granzyme B); decreased secretion of cytokines (TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma); and reduced cytotoxicity against myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. Further investigations revealed that MMP-9 and IDO may be implicated in SW1990 cell-induced NK cell dysfunction by facilitating tumor immune evasion. Blockade by TIMP-1 and/or 1-MT could partially restore NK function. Conclusions: Taken together, elevation of MMP-9 and IDO induced by pancreatic cancer cells mediates NK cell dysfunction. Our findings could contribute to the development of NK cell-based immunotherapy in patients with pancreatic cancer.BMC Cancer 10/2014; 14(1):738. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-738 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tumor burden and invasiveness establish a microenvironment that surgery could alter. This study shows a comprehensive analysis of size, dynamics, and function of peripheral lymphocyte subsets in pancreatic cancer patients before and at different times after duodenopancreatectomy. Lymphocyte frequency and natural cytotoxicity were evaluated by flow cytometry and in vitro assay on peripheral blood from initial and advanced-stage pancreatic cancer patients before (BS), at day 7 (PS7), and at day 30 (PS30) after surgery. An increase in natural killer (NK) cells and the diminution of B-cells occurred at PS30, whereas cytotoxicity decreased at PS7. The positive correlation between NK frequency and cytotoxicity at BS and PS7 revealed an altered NK behavior. The elevation of NK cell frequency at PS30, an initial defect in CD56bright NK, and the aberrant correlation between NK frequency and cytotoxicity remained significant in advanced-stage patients, whereas the diminution of NK cytotoxicity only affected initial stage patients. The NK cell functional ability is altered in presurgery patients; duodenopancreatectomy is associated with short-term impairment of NK function and with a long-term NK cell augmentation and reversion of the aberrant NK behavior, which may impact on immunosurveillance against residual cancer.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.Pancreas 01/2015; DOI:10.1097/MPA.0000000000000288 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The relationship between cancer and the immune system is a complex one. The immune system can prevent tumour growth by eliminating cancer cells but this editing process ultimately results in poorly immunogenic cells remaining allowing for unchallenged tumour growth. In light of this, the focus of cancer treatment should be to maximise cancer elimination and the prevention of escape mechanisms. In this review we will examine current and emerging ablative treatment modalities that induce Immunogenic Cell Death (ICD), a special type of cell death that allows for immune cell involvement and the generation of an anti-tumour specific immune response. When paired with immune modulating agents, capable of potentiating the immune response and reversing the immune-suppressive environment created by tumours, we may be looking at the future of anti-cancer therapy.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.09.005 · 7.58 Impact Factor