De Bono JS; COU-AA-301 Investigators. Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: Final overall survival analysis of the COU-AA-301 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study
Abiraterone acetate improved overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer at a preplanned interim analysis of the COU-AA-301 double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Here, we present the final analysis of the study before crossover from placebo to abiraterone acetate (after 775 of the prespecified 797 death events).
Between May 8, 2008, and July 28, 2009, this study enrolled 1195 patients at 147 sites in 13 countries. Patients were eligible if they had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel. Patients were stratified according to baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, worst pain over the past 24 h on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, number of previous chemotherapy regimens, and type of progression. Patients were randomly assigned (ratio 2:1) to receive either abiraterone acetate (1000 mg, once daily and orally) plus prednisone (5 mg, orally twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone with a permuted block method via an interactive web response system. The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00091442.
Of the 1195 eligible patients, 797 were randomly assigned to receive abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (abiraterone group) and 398 to receive placebo plus prednisone (placebo group). At median follow-up of 20·2 months (IQR 18·4-22·1), median overall survival for the abiraterone group was longer than in the placebo group (15·8 months [95% CI 14·8-17·0] vs 11·2 months [10·4-13·1]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·64-0·86; p<0·0001). Median time to PSA progression (8·5 months, 95% CI 8·3-11·1, in the abiraterone group vs 6·6 months, 5·6-8·3, in the placebo group; HR 0·63, 0·52-0·78; p<0·0001), median radiologic progression-free survival (5·6 months, 5·6-6·5, vs 3·6 months, 2·9-5·5; HR 0·66, 0·58-0·76; p<0·0001), and proportion of patients who had a PSA response (235 [29·5%] of 797 patients vs 22 [5·5%] of 398; p<0·0001) were all improved in the abiraterone group compared with the placebo group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were fatigue (72 [9%] of 791 patients in the abiraterone group vs 41 [10%] of 394 in the placebo group), anaemia (62 [8%] vs 32 [8%]), back pain (56 [7%] vs 40 [10%]), and bone pain (51 [6%] vs 31 [8%]).
This final analysis confirms that abiraterone acetate significantly prolongs overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressed after docetaxel treatment. No new safety signals were identified with increased follow-up.
"Recently, PSA response and survival have been reported both in patients managed with abiraterone following progression on docetaxel and enzalutamide   and in patients managed with enzalutamide following docetaxel and abiraterone    . All publications involve small patient numbers and retrospective case series, and the all demonstrate modest PSA responses and median survival compared with the randomised, placebocontrolled COU-AA-301 and AFFIRM trials  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The degree of antitumour activity of enzalutamide following disease progression on docetaxel and abiraterone remains controversial.
To examine the effect of enzalutamide in patients progressing following taxane-based chemotherapy and abiraterone.
Design, setting, and participants
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients entering one of four European compassionate use programmes of enzalutamide.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were association between OS and posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics, patient characteristics, and progression-free survival, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis were performed.
Results and limitations
We identified 137 patients who prior to enzalutamide had progressed following a median of eight cycles of docetaxel and seven courses of abiraterone. The median time on enzalutamide was 3.2 mo; median OS from the time patients started enzalutamide was 8.3 mo (95% confidence interval, 6.8–9.8). Only 45 (38%) and 22 (18%) patients had PSA declines (unconfirmed) >30% and 50%, respectively. Patients who had more than 30% or 50% falls in PSA had improved survival compared with patients who had no such PSA fall (11.4 mo vs 7.1 mo; p = 0.001 and 12.6 vs 7.4 mo; p = 0.007, respectively). Poor performance status and low haemoglobin was negatively associated with OS.
Median OS on enzalutamide following disease progression on taxane-based chemotherapy and abiraterone was modest, but patients who experience a PSA decline >30% or 50%, respectively, with enzalutamide in this setting had longer survival.
Enzalutamide produces modest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses in patients progressing following chemotherapy and abiraterone. Despite a modest PSA response, survival may still be improved.
European Urology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.07.028 · 13.94 Impact Factor
"However several recent studies have found the AR to remain a potential therapeutic target throughout the progression of PCa and the recent phase III clinical trials have demonstrated that novel potent androgen-directed agents carry benefit in reducing SREs over that of bisphosphonates alone . Among them the enzalutamide, which has demonstrated a significant improved median overall survival in men with CRPC , as well as an increase in the radiographic progression-free survival in comparison with the placebo arm (8.3 versus 2.9 months) . Abiraterone acetate, a selective oral inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP17), a key enzyme in the production of androgens, estrogens, and glucocorticoids, has been initially approved for the treatment of patients with CRPC who received prior docetaxel chemotherapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The onset of metastases dramatically changes the prognosis of prostate cancer patients, determining increased morbidity and a drastic fall in survival expectancy. Bone is a common site of metastases in few types of cancer, and it represents the most frequent metastatic site in prostate cancer. Of note, the prevalence of tumor relapse to the bone appears to be increasing over the years, likely due to a longer overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Bone tropism represents an intriguing challenge for researchers also because the preference of prostate cancer cells for the bone is the result of a sequential series of targetable molecular events. Many factors have been associated with the peculiar ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate in bone marrow and to determine mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic lesions. As anticipated by the success of current targeted therapy aimed to block bone resorption, a better understanding of molecular affinity between prostate cancer and bone microenvironment will permit us to cure bone metastasis and to improve prognosis of prostate cancer patients.
BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014(2):167035. DOI:10.1155/2014/167035 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"With median follow-up of 12.8 months, median survival improved from 10.9 months to 14.8 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.646; P < 0.0001) for patients treated with abiraterone and prednisone.43 Updated survival analysis with median follow-up of 20.2 months and 775 deaths demonstrated an improvement in OS from a median of 11.2 to 15.8 months.44 Secondary endpoints all favored treatment with abiraterone (P < 0.0001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppression of gonadal testosterone synthesis represents the standard first line therapy for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. However, in the majority of patients who develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), it is possible to detect persistent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) through androgens produced in the adrenal gland or within the tumor itself. Abiraterone acetate was developed as an irreversible inhibitor of the dual functional cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 with activity as a 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase. CYP17 is necessary for production of nongonadal androgens from cholesterol. Regulatory approval of abiraterone in 2011, based on a phase III trial showing a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) with abiraterone and prednisone versus prednisone, represented proof of principle that targeting AR is essential for improving outcomes in men with CRPC. Inhibition of 17α-hydroxylase by abiraterone results in accumulation of upstream mineralocorticoids due to loss of cortisol-mediated suppression of pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), providing a rationale for development of CYP17 inhibitors with increased specificity for 17,20-lyase (orteronel, galeterone and VT-464) that can potentially be administered without exogenous corticosteroids. In this article, we review the development of abiraterone and other CYP17 inhibitors; recent studies with abiraterone that inform our understanding of clinical parameters such as drug effects on quality-of-life, potential early predictors of response, and optimal sequencing of abiraterone with respect to other agents; and results of translational studies providing insights into resistance mechanisms to CYP17 inhibitors leading to clinical trials with drug combinations designed to prolong abiraterone benefit or restore abiraterone activity.
Asian Journal of Andrology 04/2014; 16(3). DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.129133 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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