Functional dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease: a controlled trial on the benefits of motor intervention.
ABSTRACT Background: Cognitive decline has a negative impact on functional activities in Alzheimer's disease. Investigating the effects of motor intervention with the intent to reduce the decline in functionality is an expected target for patients and caregivers. The aim of this study was to verify if a 6-month motor intervention programme promoted functionality in Alzheimer's patients and attenuated caregivers' burden. Methods: The sample comprised 32 community patients with Alzheimer's disease and their 32 respective caregivers. Patients were divided into two groups: 16 participated in the motor intervention programme and 16 controls. Subjects performed 60 minutes of exercises, three times per week during the 6-month period, to improve flexibility, strength, agility and balance. Caregivers followed the procedures with their patients during this period. Functionality was evaluated by the Berg Functional Balance Scale and the Functional Independence Measure. Caregivers completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale and the Zarit Carer Burden Scale. Two-way ANOVA was used to verify the interaction between time (pre- and post-intervention) and the motor intervention program. Results: While patients in the motor programme preserved their functionality, as assessed by the Functional Independence Measure, the controls suffered a relative decline (motor intervention group: from 109.6 to 108.4 vs controls: from 99.5 to 71.6; P= 0.01). Patients from motor intervention also had better scores than the controls on functional balance assessed by Berg scale (F: 22.2; P= 0.001). As assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Zarit scale, burden was reduced among caregivers whose patients participated in the motor intervention programme compared with caregivers whose patients did not participate in this programme (Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregiver's part: F: 9.37; P= 0.01; Zarit: F: 11.28; P= 0.01). Conclusion: Patients from the motor intervention group showed reduced functional decline compared to the controls, and there was an associated decrease in caregivers' burden.
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ABSTRACT: To verify the effects of a systematized multimodal exercise intervention program on frontal cognitive function, postural control, and functional capacity components of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nonrandomized controlled trial with pre- and posttraining tests in a training group and a control group. Kinesiotherapy program for seniors with AD, São Paulo State University. Convenience sample of older adults with AD (n = 30) were assigned to a training (n = 14; aged 78.6 ± 7.1) and a control (n = 16; aged 77.0 ± 6.3) group. The intervention program was structured with the aim of simultaneously promoting better balance and frontal cognitive capacity. The participants attended a 1-hour session three times a week for 16 weeks, whereas the control group did not participate in any activity during the same period. Frontal cognitive function was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Clock Drawing Test, the Frontal Assessment Battery, and the Symbol Search Subtest. Postural control (center of pressure area) was analyzed under four dual-task conditions. Functional capacity components were analyzed using the Timed Up and Go Test, the 30-second sit-to-stand test, the sit-and-reach test, and the Berg Functional Balance Scale. Intervention group participants showed a significant increase in frontal cognitive function (P < .001, partial η(2) = 0.838), with less body sway (P = .04, partial η(2) = 0.04) during the dual tasks, and greater functional capacity (P = .001, partial η(2) = 0.676) after the 16-week period. Intervention participants performed better on dual-task activities and had better postural balance and greater functional capacity than controls.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2013; 61(11):1919-26. DOI:10.1111/jgs.12531 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Many studies reported that physiotherapy interventions are available to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the efficacy remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy intervention on AD. Methods: The data sources were searched from literature databases, journals, and reference lists from 1 January 1990 to the end of 1 April 2014. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials with physiotherapy intervention were included in our meta-analysis. Jadad score and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality of included trials. Outcome measures were cognition function, physical function, activity of daily life (ADL) and neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Results: 23 trials met the inclusion standard finally. Significant changes were seen in cognitive function: Mini-Mental State Examination score (weighted mean difference (WMD): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.76, to, 2.93], p < 0.0001), and verbal fluency (standard mean difference (SMD): 0.34, 95% CI: [0.01 to 0.66], p = 0.04). Other outcomes are also significant, they were timed up and go test (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: [0.30 to 0.83], p < 0.0001), berg functional balance scale (SMD: 1.11, 95% CI: [0.37 to 1.84], p = 0.003), 6-min walk distance test (SMD: 141.45, 95% CI: [11.72 to 271.18], p = 0.03), ADL (SMD: 0.78, 95% CI: [0.33 to 1.23], p = 0.0007) and NPI (SMD: -0.69, 95% CI: [-1.31 to -0.07], p = 0.03). Conclusion: The available data indicate that physiotherapy intervention may have benefits in AD. However, current data are not definitive; more carefully designed and conducted observational studies are needed to definitively establish that whether physiotherapy intervention can effectively alleviate symptoms of AD.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.3233/JAD-141377 · 3.61 Impact Factor