Article

Large T antigens of polyomaviruses: amazing molecular machines.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260; email: .
Annual review of microbiology (Impact Factor: 12.8). 10/2012; 66:213-36. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-092611-150154
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The large tumor antigen (T antigen) encoded by simian virus 40 is an amazing molecular machine because it orchestrates viral infection by modulating multiple fundamental viral and cellular processes. T antigen is required for viral DNA replication, transcription, and virion assembly. In addition, T antigen targets multiple cellular pathways, including those that regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and the inflammatory response. Ectopic T antigen expression results in the immortalization and transformation of many cell types in culture and T antigen induces neoplasia when expressed in rodents. The analysis of the mechanisms by which T antigen carries out its many functions has proved to be a powerful way of gaining insights into cell biology. The accelerating pace at which new polyomaviruses are being discovered provides a collection of novel T antigens that, like simian virus 40, can be used to discover and study key cellular regulatory systems.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rip1-Tag2 mice is one overt pancreatic β-cell tumor model, which is widely used for studying pancreas tumor angiogenesis and tumor development. However, tumor metastasis in Rip1-Tag2 mice had rarely been reported, in this present study, we find some micrometastasis in lung and spleen of the Rip1-Tag2 mice at advanced stage, which is important for uncovering metastasis cell characteristics and exploring how to survive in cancer microenvironment. To study the micrometastasis of Rip1-Tag2 mice in advanced pancreatic cancer, we first observed the pathology process of β cell tumor in Rip1-Tag2 mice through HE staining, then we performed immunohistochemistry with insulin antibody, T-antigen antibodies and C-petide antibody on lung and spleen tissues sections from advanced stage, comparing with background wild-type C57BL/6 mice sections. The results indicated that micrometastasis expressing insulin was found in the Rip1-Tag2 mice lung, and spleen. Further evidences demonstrate pathology structure of lung and spleen are damaged. Interestingly and importantly, the expression of T antigen and insulin antibodies are all decreased in advanced stage of primary β cell tumor, which suggest that the at least partly micrometastasis is derived from the early stage or from advanced stage of β cell tumor then return to undifferentiated state like cancer stem cell. The findings contributed to the study of cancer metastasis and cancer stem cell.
    International journal of biological sciences 01/2014; 10(2):136-41. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: JC virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family of DNA tumor viruses and the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a disease that occurs primarily in people who are immunocompromised and is usually fatal. As with other Polyomavirus family members, the replication of JC virus (JCV) DNA is dependent upon the virally encoded protein T-antigen. To further our understanding of JCV replication, we have determined the crystal structure of the origin-binding domain (OBD) of JCV T-antigen. This structure provides the first molecular understanding of JCV T-ag replication functions; for example, it suggests how the JCV T-ag OBD site-specifically binds to the major groove of GAGGC sequences in the origin. Furthermore, these studies suggest how the JCV OBDs interact during subsequent oligomerization events. We also report that the OBD contains a novel "pocket"; which sequesters the A1 & B2 loops of neighboring molecules. Mutagenesis of a residue in the pocket associated with the JCV T-ag OBD interfered with viral replication. Finally, we report that relative to the SV40 OBD, the surface of the JCV OBD contains one hemisphere that is highly conserved and one that is highly variable.
    PLoS Pathogens 02/2014; 10(2):e1003966. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyomaviruses have so far only been isolated from mammals and birds. Typical for all members of this family is their double-stranded genome of approximately 5,000 base-pairs which can be divided into an early region encoding at least two functional proteins, the large and small tumor antigens, and a late region encompassing genes for the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. During the last 10 years several novel polyomaviruses have been described in non-human primates and man. This review compares the non-human primate polyomavirus genomes that have been completely sequenced with each other and with the genomes of human polyomaviruses. We predict the presence of protein- and microRNA-encoding sequences. Our analyses demonstrate that several genetically distinct groups of non-human primate polyomaviruses exist, that different polyomaviruses can infect the same non-human primate species but that most of their proteins display highly similar domains and motifs, indicating conservation of key functions.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 06/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor