Isolation and characterization of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste, UNICENTRO, Rua Simeão Camargo Varela de Sá, 03. CEDETEG, Guarapuava, PR, CEP 85040-080, Brazil, .
Parasitology Research (Impact Factor: 2.1). 09/2012; 112(1). DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-3123-3
Source: PubMed


The spread of organic farming and the development of resistance to anthelmintics by parasites, especially in small ruminants, have necessitated the search for alternative methods of nematode control. Biological control using nematophagous fungi is one option; however, few studies have been conducted with native strains. The present study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, we aimed to isolate, identify, and assess the in vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi that had been isolated on Trichostrongylidae third-instar larvae. In the second phase, the isolate with superior predatory activity in vitro was molecularly characterized, and its morphological plasticity was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on Haemonchus third-instar larvae. Of the 56 soil samples from different regions of Paraná State, Brazil, 57 fungal strains were recovered, of which four exhibited predatory activity. Two pure isolates were obtained: the CED and LIN strains. After demonstrating 96.35 % predatory activity for the CED strain, this strain was selected and characterized using molecular criteria by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer and was identified as Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309). Morphological patterns in this strain during the interaction between the fungus and the nematode were revealed by SEM, in which two extensions of the infection bulb that was used to pierce the nematode's cuticle were clearly visible.

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    ABSTRACT: Biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants by use of nematophagous fungi would become part of any livestock parasite integral control system. Identifying autochthonous species that could then be selected for mass production is an important phase in the practical use of biological control. To search for nematophagous fungi with potential use as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina. Decomposing cattle faeces sampled in different locations were incubated in water agar 2% with Panagrellus sp. The developed nematophagous fungi were transferred to new water agar 2% plates and then to corn meal agar plates in order to carry out their identification. Fungal diversity and richness were also assessed. Seventeen species from nine genera of nematophagous fungi were found. Twelve species were nematode-trapping fungi and three species plus two fungi identified to genus level corresponded to endoparasitic fungi. Arthrobotrys conoides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium doedycoides, Arthrobotrys robusta and Drechmeria coniospora were the most frequently isolated species overall in the whole study (6.6%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 4.7% and 4.7%, respectively) although other species were more frequently recorded at local levels such as Arthrobotrys pyriformis (18.8%). Only A. conoides has been previously isolated from ruminant faecal samples in Argentina. Five nematode-trapping fungal species are mentioned for the first time in the Americas CONCLUSIONS: D. flagrans and A. conoides, both identified in the present study, are among the most promising ones as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Nematophagous fungi are considered to have the best potential as biological agents for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in domestic animals. However, relatively few studies have been conducted with the genus Monacrosporium, especially with strains native to China. In the present study, we isolated and identified nematophagous fungi from fresh sheep feces. A pure fungal strain was molecularly characterized, and its nematophagous activity was evaluated. The morphological plasticity of the isolated strain, as well as its interaction with the nematode targets, was observed by scanning electron microscopy of the infected Trichostrongylus colubriformis L3 and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Three isolated fungal strains from the 30 fresh fecal samples of sheep from Inner Mongolia, China exhibited predatory activity; however, only a single strain was successfully purified (SF 0459). The SF 0459 strain was characterized by morphological analysis of its conidia and sequencing of its ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region. This strain was identified to be Monacrosporium salinum (GenBank ID: KP036623). Nematophagous fungus helper bacteria were found at the interaction points between fungi and nematodes. The percentage of live T. colubriformis L3 was reduced by 83.79-88.69% based on the in vitro assay. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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