Isolation and characterization of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides.
ABSTRACT The spread of organic farming and the development of resistance to anthelmintics by parasites, especially in small ruminants, have necessitated the search for alternative methods of nematode control. Biological control using nematophagous fungi is one option; however, few studies have been conducted with native strains. The present study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, we aimed to isolate, identify, and assess the in vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi that had been isolated on Trichostrongylidae third-instar larvae. In the second phase, the isolate with superior predatory activity in vitro was molecularly characterized, and its morphological plasticity was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on Haemonchus third-instar larvae. Of the 56 soil samples from different regions of Paraná State, Brazil, 57 fungal strains were recovered, of which four exhibited predatory activity. Two pure isolates were obtained: the CED and LIN strains. After demonstrating 96.35 % predatory activity for the CED strain, this strain was selected and characterized using molecular criteria by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer and was identified as Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309). Morphological patterns in this strain during the interaction between the fungus and the nematode were revealed by SEM, in which two extensions of the infection bulb that was used to pierce the nematode's cuticle were clearly visible.
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ABSTRACT: A simplified system has been developed to facilitate identification of nematode larvae of the common nematodes of cattle, sheep and goats. Firstly, in addition to the characteristics conventionally used for identification (such as the shape of the cranial extremity and numbers of intestinal cells), the lengths of the infective sheath tails of infective larvae of each genus/species are related to that of Trichostrongylus spp. instead of using measurements for differentiation. For instance, if the mean length of the sheath tail (the distance the sheath extends caudad beyond the caudal tip of the larva) of Trichostrongylus spp. is assumed to be "X", then that of Haemonchus contortus is 2-2.7"X", and that of Oesophagostomum spp. from sheep is 4-7"X", etc. Secondly, by estimating the proportion of the sheath tail of a larva comprised of a terminal thin whip-like filament, identification is aided, particularly in those L3 of species that resemble one another closely, such as Chabertia ovina and Oesophagostomum venulosum or Oesophagostomum columbianum. After some practice with the system it is usually necessary to measure only one or two sheath tails of L3 in a mixed population, whereupon the identity of most of the remaining L3 can be estimated in relation to those measured, without a need for further measurements. The keys were found to facilitate differential larval identification and are particularly useful for training.Veterinary Parasitology 03/2004; 119(4):277-306. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interaction between Duddingtonia flagrans and infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus was studied in vitro under optical and scanning electron microscopy. Trap formation by the fungus started 9 hours after inoculation and first larvae were found 11 hours after larval inoculation on colonies grown on the surface of dialysis membranes. Scanning electron micrographs were taken 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after larval predation. Details of predation structures and fungus-larvae interaction are described. A mucilaginous substance occurred at the points of adherence of traps to nematode cuticle. Bacteria were also found at some points of interaction between fungus and larval cuticle. Cuticle penetration by fungus hyphae occurred only 48 h after predation.Journal of Helminthology 08/2008; 82(4):337-41. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four isolates of predacious fungi, two each of Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from a sheep and a male crossbred calf and of Duddingtonia flagrans isolated from a sheep and a female buffalo in western India, were studied for their suitability as biocontrol agents against parasitic nematodes of ruminants, using growth assay, predatory activity, germination potential and ability to survive passing through the ruminants gut as criteria. The study showed that isolates of D. flagrans grew well in artificial media, had encouraging predatory activity, produced profuse chlamydospores that germinated easily at 25 degrees C and could survive passage through the ruminant gut. The ovine isolate of D. flagrans was superior in all respects to the isolate from buffalo and was the most promising candidate for biological control of nematode parasites of ruminants.Veterinary Research Communications 03/2000; 24(1):55-62. · 1.08 Impact Factor