Stomatal development: A plant's perspective on cell polarity, cell fate transitions and intercellular communication

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.46). 10/2012; 139(20):3683-92. DOI: 10.1242/dev.080523
Source: PubMed


The plant stomatal lineage manifests features common to many developmental contexts: precursor cells are chosen from an initially equivalent field of cells, undergo asymmetric and self-renewing divisions, communicate among themselves and respond to information from a distance. As we review here, the experimental accessibility of these epidermal lineages, particularly in Arabidopsis, has made stomata a conceptual and technical framework for the study of cell fate, stem cells, and cell polarity in plants.

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    • "These multiple constraints of water and nutrient availability, together with predicted climate instability pose a serious threat to food security (Poppy et al., 2014). Over the past decade the signaling pathway that controls the formation of stomata (the microscopic leaf pores that control E) has become better understood (Casson & Gray, 2008; Lau & Bergmann, 2012; Pillitteri & Torii, 2012). This knowledge allows us to study the physiological implications of altering stomatal density (D) within plants of the same genetic background. "
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    ABSTRACT: Manipulation of stomatal density was investigated as a potential tool for enhancing drought tolerance or nutrient uptake. Drought tolerance and soil water retention were assessed using Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor mutants manipulated to have increased or decreased stomatal density. Root nutrient uptake via mass flow was monitored under differing plant watering regimes using nitrogen-15 ((15) N) isotope and mass spectrometry. Plants with less than half of their normal complement of stomata, and correspondingly reduced levels of transpiration, conserve soil moisture and are highly drought tolerant but show little or no reduction in shoot nitrogen concentrations especially when water availability is restricted. By contrast, plants with over twice the normal density of stomata have a greater capacity for nitrogen uptake, except when water availability is restricted. We demonstrate the possibility of producing plants with reduced transpiration which have increased drought tolerance, with little or no loss of nutrient uptake. We demonstrate that increasing transpiration can enhance nutrient uptake when water is plentiful. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
    New Phytologist 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/nph.13598 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    • "We also touch briefly on environmental factors that can impact leaf development (see Box 2), and on recently developed quantitative approaches (see Box 3), which can serve to further characterize and understand leaf development. We chose not to discuss adaxial-abaxial, vascular, trichome or stomatal patterning, as several recent reviews have discussed these topics (Grebe, 2012; Kidner and Timmermans, 2010; Lau and Bergmann, 2012; Nakata and Okada, 2013; Sack and Scoffoni, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).
    Current Opinion in Plant Biology 02/2015; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.pbi.2014.10.007 · 7.85 Impact Factor
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    • "Arabidopsis stomatal development involves the secreted peptide ligands such as EPIDERMAL PATERNING FACTORS (i.e. EPF1, EPF2, STOMAGEN, CHALLAH), as well as signals received by TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and the ERECTA family of receptors (Nadeau, 2009; Lau and Bergmann, 2012). These signals are in turn transduced via a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which includes YODA (YDA), MKK4/5/7/9, and MPK3/ 6 (Bergmann et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The initiation of stomatal lineage and subsequent asymmetric divisions in Arabidopsis require the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). It has been shown that SPCH controls entry into the stomatal lineage as a substrate either of the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MAPK) cascade or GSK3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2). Here we show that three serine residues of SPCH appear to be the primary phosphorylation targets of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases A;1 (CDKA;1) in vitro, and among them Serine 186 plays a crucial role in stomatal formation. Expression of an SPCH construct harboring a mutation that results in phosphorylation deficiencies on Serine 186 residue failed to rescue stomatal defects in spch null mutants. Expression of a phosphorylation-mimic mutant SPCH(S186D) complemented stomatal production defects in the transgenic lines harboring the targeted expression of dominant-negative CDKA;1.N146. Therefore, in addition to MAPK- and BIN2-mediated phosphorylation on SPCH, phosphorylation at Serine 186 is positively required for SPCH function in regulating stomatal development. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Plant 12/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1016/j.molp.2014.12.014 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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