25C-NBOMe - New potent hallucinogenic substance identified on the drug market.
ABSTRACT This publication reports analytical properties of a new hallucinogenic substance identified in blotter papers seized from the drug market, namely 25C-NBOMe [2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine]. The identification was based on results of comprehensive study including several analytical methods, i.e., GC-EI-MS (without derivatization and after derivatization with TFAA), LC-ESI-QTOF-MS, FTIR and NMR. The GC-MS spectrum of 25C-NBOMe was similar to those obtained for other representatives of the 25-NBOMe series, with dominant ions observed at m/z=150, 121 and 91. Fragment ions analogic to those in 2C-C (4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxy-β-phenylethanamine) were also observed, but their intensities were low. Derivatization allowed the determination of molecular mass of the investigated substance. The exact molecular mass and chemical formula were confirmed by LC-QTOF-MS experiments and fragmentation pattern under electrospray ionization was determined. The MS/MS experiments confirmed that the investigated substance was N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivative of 2C-C. The substance was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy to corroborate its identity. Final elucidation of the structure was performed by NMR spectroscopy.
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Article: Hallucinogens.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hallucinogens (psychedelics) are psychoactive substances that powerfully alter perception, mood, and a host of cognitive processes. They are considered physiologically safe and do not produce dependence or addiction. Their origin predates written history, and they were employed by early cultures in a variety of sociocultural and ritual contexts. In the 1950s, after the virtually contemporaneous discovery of both serotonin (5-HT) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), early brain research focused intensely on the possibility that LSD or other hallucinogens had a serotonergic basis of action and reinforced the idea that 5-HT was an important neurotransmitter in brain. These ideas were eventually proven, and today it is believed that hallucinogens stimulate 5-HT(2A) receptors, especially those expressed on neocortical pyramidal cells. Activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors also leads to increased cortical glutamate levels presumably by a presynaptic receptor-mediated release from thalamic afferents. These findings have led to comparisons of the effects of classical hallucinogens with certain aspects of acute psychosis and to a focus on thalamocortical interactions as key to understanding both the action of these substances and the neuroanatomical sites involved in altered states of consciousness (ASC). In vivo brain imaging in humans using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose has shown that hallucinogens increase prefrontal cortical metabolism, and correlations have been developed between activity in specific brain areas and psychological elements of the ASC produced by hallucinogens. The 5-HT(2A) receptor clearly plays an essential role in cognitive processing, including working memory, and ligands for this receptor may be extremely useful tools for future cognitive neuroscience research. In addition, it appears entirely possible that utility may still emerge for the use of hallucinogens in treating alcoholism, substance abuse, and certain psychiatric disorders.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 03/2004; 101(2):131-81. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hallucinogens, including mescaline, psilocybin, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), profoundly affect perception, cognition, and mood. All known drugs of this class are 5-HT(2A) receptor (2AR) agonists, yet closely related 2AR agonists such as lisuride lack comparable psychoactive properties. Why only certain 2AR agonists are hallucinogens and which neural circuits mediate their effects are poorly understood. By genetically expressing 2AR only in cortex, we show that 2AR-regulated pathways on cortical neurons are sufficient to mediate the signaling pattern and behavioral response to hallucinogens. Hallucinogenic and nonhallucinogenic 2AR agonists both regulate signaling in the same 2AR-expressing cortical neurons. However, the signaling and behavioral responses to the hallucinogens are distinct. While lisuride and LSD both act at 2AR expressed by cortex neurons to regulate phospholipase C, LSD responses also involve pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G(i/o) proteins and Src. These studies identify the long-elusive neural and signaling mechanisms responsible for the unique effects of hallucinogens.Neuron 03/2007; 53(3):439-52. · 15.77 Impact Factor