Article

Critical care considerations in the management of the trauma patient following initial resuscitation

Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.93). 09/2012; 20(1):68. DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-68
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background
Care of the polytrauma patient does not end in the operating room or resuscitation bay. The patient presenting to the intensive care unit following initial resuscitation and damage control surgery may be far from stable with ongoing hemorrhage, resuscitation needs, and injuries still requiring definitive repair. The intensive care physician must understand the respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immunologic consequences of trauma resuscitation and massive transfusion in order to evaluate and adjust the ongoing resuscitative needs of the patient and address potential complications. In this review, we address ongoing resuscitation in the intensive care unit along with potential complications in the trauma patient after initial resuscitation. Complications such as abdominal compartment syndrome, transfusion related patterns of acute lung injury and metabolic consequences subsequent to post-trauma resuscitation are presented.

Methods
A non-systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews up to May 2012.

Results and conclusion
Polytrauma patients with severe shock from hemorrhage and massive tissue injury present major challenges for management and resuscitation in the intensive care setting. Many of the current recommendations for “damage control resuscitation” including the use of fixed ratios in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy remain controversial. A lack of large, randomized, controlled trials leaves most recommendations at the level of consensus, expert opinion. Ongoing trials and improvements in monitoring and resuscitation technologies will further influence how we manage these complex and challenging patients.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Samuel M Galvagno, Sep 09, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
178 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This editorial aims to refine the severe polytrauma management principles. While keeping ABCDE priorities, the termination of futile resuscitation and the early use of tourniquet to stop exsanguinating limb bleeding are crucial. Difficult-airway-management (DAM) is by a structured 5-level approach. The computerised tomography (CT) scanner is the tunnel to death for hemodynamically unstable patients. Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma-Ultrasonography (FAST USG) has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) and is expanding to USG life support. Direct whole-body multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) expedites diagnosis & treatment. Non-operative management is a viable option in rapid responders in shock. Damage control resuscitation comprising of permissive hypotension, hemostatic resuscitation & damage control surgery (DCS) help prevent the lethal triad of trauma. Massive transfusion protocol reduces mortality and decreases the blood requirement. DCS attains rapid correction of the deranged physiology. Mortality reduction in major pelvic disruption requires a multi-disciplinary protocol, the novel pre-peritoneal pelvic packing and the angio-embolization. When operation is the definitive treatment for injury, prevention is best therapy.
    Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2013; 20(1):1-12.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traumatic hemorrhagic shock resulting in tissue hypoxia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in polytraumatized patients. Early identification of tissue hypoxia is possible with microdialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between a marker of tissue hypoxia (L/P; lactate to pyruvate ratio) and selected parameters of systemic oxygen delivery (Hb; hemoglobin) and oxygen extraction (ScvO2; central venous oxygen saturation). We also investigated the severity of tissue hypoxia over the course of care. Adult patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Microdialysis of the peripheral muscle tissue was performed. Demographic data and timeline of care were collected. Tissue lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, glucose levels, hemoglobin, serum lactate and oxygen saturation of the central venous blood (ScvO2) levels were also measured. The L/P ratio trend may react to changes in systemic hemoglobin levels with a delay of 7 to 10 hours, particularly when systemic hemoglobin levels are increased by transfusion. Decrease in tissue L/P ratio may react to increase in ScvO2 with a delay of up to 10 hours, and such a decrease may signify elimination of tissue hypoxia after transfusion. We also observed changes in the L/P trend in the 13 hours preceding a change in the hemoglobin level. Fluid administration, which is routinely used as a first-line treatment of hypovolemic shock, can cause hemodilution and decreased hemoglobin. When ScvO2 decreases, increase in L/P ratio may precede the ScvO2 trend by 10 or 11 hours. An increase in the L/P ratio is an early warning sign of insufficient tissue oxygenation and should lead to intensive observation of hemoglobin levels, ScvO2 and other hemodynamic parameters. Patients who were treated more rapidly had lower maximal L/P values and a lower degree of tissue ischemia. The L/P ratio is useful to identify tissue ischemia and can estimate the effectiveness of fluid resuscitation. An increase in the L/P ratio is an early warning sign of inadequate tissue oxygenation and should lead to more detailed hemodynamic and laboratory monitoring. This information cannot usually be obtained from global markers.
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 02/2014; 22(1):11. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-22-11 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cold regions are a special combat environment in which low temperatures have a great impact on human metabolism and other vital functions, including the nervous, motion, cardiovascular, circulatory, respiratory, and urinary systems; consequently, low temperatures often aggravate existing trauma, leading to high mortality rates if rapid and appropriate treatment is not provided. Hypothermia is an independent risk factor of fatality following combat trauma; therefore, proactive preventative measures are needed to reduce the rate of mortality. After summarizing the basic research on battlefield environments and progress in the prevention and treatment of trauma, this article concludes that current treatment and prevention measures for combat trauma in cold regions are inadequate. Future molecular biology studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms and relevant cell factors underlying bodily injury caused by cold environment, a research goal will also allow further exploration of corresponding treatments.
    05/2014; 1(1):8. DOI:10.1186/2054-9369-1-8