Mental Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence and Impact on Glycemic Control

Clinical Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.26). 09/2012; 52(1). DOI: 10.1177/0009922812459950
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mental health comorbidities can negatively affect disease management in adolescents with chronic illnesses. This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of mental health issues in a population of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 150 patients aged 11 to 25 years with type 1 diabetes from an urban, academic diabetes center was conducted. Participants completed 3 validated mental health disorder screening instruments: Beck's Depression Inventory, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-41 anxiety screen, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. More than a third screened positive: 11.3% for depression, 21.3% for anxiety, and 20.7% for disordered eating (14.7% had ≥2 positive screens). Patients with a positive screen had twice the odds of having poor glycemic control as those without, as measured by HgbA1c. This study supports screening for mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: To determine the barriers to and enablers of engaging with specialist diabetes care and the service requirements of young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus from a low socio-economic, multicultural region. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey targeted 357 young adults with Type 1 diabetes, aged 18-30 years. Participants completed questions about barriers/enablers to accessing diabetes care and service preferences, self-reported HbA1c , plus measures of diabetes-related distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes), depression/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and illness perceptions (Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire). RESULTS: Eighty-six (24%) responses were received [55 (64%) female; mean ± sd age 24 ± 4 years; diabetes duration 12 ± 7 years; HbA1c 68 ± 16 mmol/mol (8.4 ± 1.5 Logistical barriers to attending diabetes care were reported; for example, time constraints (30%), transportation (26%) and cost (21%). However, 'a previous unsatisfactory diabetes health experience' was cited as a barrier by 27%. Enablers were largely matched to overcoming these barriers. Over 90% preferred a multidisciplinary team environment, close to home, with after-hours appointment times. Forty per cent reported severe diabetes-related distress, 19% reported moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms and 50% reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Among these young adults with Type 1 diabetes, glycaemic control was suboptimal and emotional distress common. They had identifiable logistical barriers to accessing and maintaining contact with diabetes care services, which can be addressed with flexible service provision. A substantial minority were discouraged by previous unsatisfactory experiences, suggesting health providers need to improve their interactions with young adults. This research will inform the design of life-stage-appropriate diabetes services targeting optimal engagement, access, attendance and ultimately improved healthcare outcomes in this vulnerable population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 05/2013; 30(7). DOI:10.1111/dme.12227 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess medical and psychological outcomes among young people with Type 1 diabetes and to compare medical outcomes with a previous audit. An observational study in two diabetes clinics for young adults (aged 16-21 years) in Sheffield, UK. Young people (n = 96: 81.4% response rate) with Type 1 diabetes (diagnosed > 6 months) completed measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety and disordered eating and consented for their medical records to be consulted. Mean HbA1c (86 ± 23 mmol/mol; 10.0 ± 2.1%); was comparable with that reported previously and considerably higher than recommended (< 58 mmol/mol or 7.5%). Screening rates were improved and non-attendance was lower than previously reported, but levels of non-proliferative retinopathy have increased. Microvascular complications are present in 46.9% of those diagnosed more than 7 years. Elevated levels of disordered eating were reported by 35.1%. Those scoring above cut-off levels for clinical anxiety (26.6%) and depression (10.9%) are comparable with other work with young people with Type 1 diabetes. Despite technological advances and improvements to delivery of care, HbA1c remain above recommended levels in a significant proportion of young people, many of whom already have microvascular complications. We need to learn from European centres who achieve better results, improve transition from paediatric care, integrate mental health support with diabetes care provision and take into account young people's views about clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 08/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1111/dme.12305 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI). Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.
    The Scientific World Journal 09/2013; 2013:672729. DOI:10.1155/2013/672729 · 1.73 Impact Factor