Integrated coastal effects study: Synthesis of findings

Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California, USA. .
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.83). 12/2012; 31(12). DOI: 10.1002/etc.2007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Municipal wastewater discharges constitute a major source of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) to coastal waters, yet uncertainty exists regarding their linkage to adverse biological effects such as endocrine disruption. Limited information is available concerning the types and fate of CECs discharged to the Southern California Bight (SCB) from municipal wastewater and their potential for ecological impacts. The present study investigated the impacts of CECs from ocean wastewater discharges on SCB fish. Concentrations of CECs were measured in effluents from four major municipal wastewater dischargers. Seawater, sediment, and hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) from the discharge sites and a reference area were collected and analyzed for chemical and biological indicators. Low concentrations of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial and commercial compounds were measured in effluent. Some CECs were also detected in sediment, seawater, and fish livers near the outfalls, confirming exposure to CECs. Fish plasma hormone analyses suggested the presence of physiological effects, including a reduced stress response, altered estrogen synthesis or estrogenic exposure, and reduced thyroxine. Most fish responses were found at all sites and could not be directly associated with effluent discharges. However, concentrations of thyroxine were lower at all discharge sites relative to the reference, and estradiol concentrations were lower at three of the four outfall sites. The physiological responses found were not associated with adverse impacts on fish reproduction or populations. Interpretation of molecular and physiological measurements in field organisms such as those used in the present study is challenging because of a lack of information on baseline conditions and uncertain linkages to apical endpoints such as survival and reproduction. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC.

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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing concern approximately the presence of pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, and other chemicals collectively known as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in municipal effluents. Yet, knowledge approximately potential environmental impacts related to these compounds is still limited. In the present study, we conducted laboratory exposures that examined estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroid-related endocrine responses in marine hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) exposed to CECs from municipal effluents with two degrees of treatment. Fish were exposed for 14 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent (0.5%) and to a higher concentration (5%) to investigate dose responses. Plasma concentrations of estradiol (E2), vitellogenin (VTG), 11-keto testosterone and thyroxine were measured to assess endocrine responses. CECs were analyzed to characterize the effluents. Diverse types of effluent CECs were detected. Statistically significant responses were not observed in fish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of effluent. Elevated plasma E2 concentrations were observed in males exposed to ammonia concentrations similar to those found in effluents. However, exposure to ammonia did not induce VTG production in male fish. The results of the present study highlight the importance of conducting research with sentinel organisms in laboratory studies to understand the environmental significance of the presence of CECs in aquatic systems. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11/2013; 33(3). DOI:10.1002/etc.2466 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sentinel fish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthysverticalis) captured near wastewater outfalls are used for monitoring exposure to industrial and agricultural chemicals of ~ 20 million people living in coastal Southern California. Although analyses of hormones in blood and organ morphology and histology are useful for assessing contaminant exposure, there is a need for quantitative and sensitive molecular measurements, since contaminants of emerging concern are known to produce subtle effects. We developed a second generation multi-species microarray with expanded content and sensitivity to investigate endocrine disruption in turbot captured near wastewater outfalls in San Diego, Orange County and Los Angeles California. Analysis of expression of genes involved in hormone [e.g., estrogen, androgen, thyroid] responses and xenobiotic metabolism in turbot livers was correlated with a series of phenotypic end points. Molecular analyses of turbot livers uncovered altered expression of vitellogenin and zona pellucida protein, indicating exposure to one or more estrogenic chemicals, as well as, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase-α indicating induction of the detoxification response. Molecular responses indicative of exposure to endocrine disruptors were observed in field-caught hornyhead turbot captured in Southern California demonstrating the utility of molecular methods for monitoring environmental chemicals in wastewater outfalls. Moreover, this approach can be adapted to monitor other sites for contaminants of emerging concern in other fish species for which there are few available gene sequences.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75553. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075553 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extensive anthropogenic terrestrial sedimentary deposits are well recognized in the geologic literature and are increasingly being referred to as legacy sediment (LS). Definitions of LS are reviewed and a broad but explicit definition is recommended based on episodically produced anthropogenic sediment. The phrase is being used in a variety of ways, but primarily in North America to describe post-settlement alluvium overlying older surfaces. The role of humans may be implied by current usage, but this is not always clear. The definition of LS should include alluvium and colluvium resulting to a substantial degree from a range of human-induced disturbances; e.g., vegetation clearance, logging, agriculture, mining, grazing, or urbanization. Moreover, LS should apply to sediment resulting from anthropogenic episodes on other continents and to sediment deposited by earlier episodes of human activities. Given a broad definition of LS, various types of LS deposits are described followed by a qualitative description of processes governing deposition, preservation, and recruitment. LS is deposited and preserved where sediment delivery (DS) exceeds sediment transport capacity (TC). This can be expressed as a storage potential ratio that varies within and between basins and through time. When DS/TC < 1, recruitment and transport of LS dominate, but if DS/TC > 1, deposition and preservation are likely. When DS/TC ≫ 1, abundant deposition and graded deposits are likely even without barriers or sinks. Thus, spatial patterns of LS deposits may reveal information about past land-use history and hydrodynamics in a catchment.
    10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ancene.2013.04.001


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May 22, 2014