OBJECTIVE To investigate the inflammatory markers associated with short-term endotracheal intubation in healthy surgical patients. DESIGN An observational and prospective study of subjects scheduled for same-day surgery procedures. SETTING Level I trauma center. PATIENTS Fourteen healthy patients intubated for same-day surgery procedures. The median duration of surgery was 3 hours. INTERVENTIONS Serial lavages above the tracheal cuff were obtained at the beginning of surgery, at 1 hour, and at the end of surgery; samples were assayed for cellular counts and levels of cytokines and complement 5a (C5a). RESULTS The total number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) increased almost 10-fold from intubation to extubation (P < .01). The levels of 3 of the cytokines measured in tracheal lavage supernatants were significantly elevated over the time of intubation: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (P < .01), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (P < .01), and IL-1β (P < .025). Levels of IL-8 showed an upward trend over time but were not significantly increased; C5a levels were significantly elevated over time (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS Short-term intubation in healthy patients resulted in significant tracheal inflammation. Involvement of the innate immune system as documented in the present study provides information that may help to better understand the pathophysiologic characteristics of subglottic stenosis and other endotracheal injuries secondary to endotracheal intubation.
"However, there seems to be some evidence that women benefit from a smaller size ETT . The etiology of POST is also not clearly understood, but it appears to be an inflammatory process since the tracheal mucosa has been found to release inflammatory mediators after intubation . However, the exact anatomical location of sore throat still remains uncertain in patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Postoperative sore throat and hoarseness are common minor complications following airway manipulation. This study was primarily done to determine gender differences in the incidence of these symptoms and the location of POST after laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and endotracheal tube (ETT).
A total of 112 men and 185 women were included during a four month period. All patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 24 hours about the occurrence of sore throat, its location and hoarseness. If the patients had any symptom, they were followed-up at 48, 72 and 96 hours until the symptoms resolved.
There was no significant gender difference in postoperative sore throat (POST) and postoperative hoarseness (PH) when analyzing both airway devices together. The incidence of sore throat and hoarseness were higher postoperatively after an ETT than an LMA (32% vs. 19%, p = 0.012) and 57% vs. 33% (p < 0.001) respectively. Significantly more women than men had POST after an LMA (26% vs. 6%, p = 0.004). No significant gender difference was found in either POST or PH after an ETT or in the incidence of PH after an LMA. More patients located their pain below the larynx after an ETT vs. an LMA (24% vs. 4%). Pain above the larynx was more common after an LMA than an ETT (52% vs. 37%).
In a clinical setting where women are intubated with a smaller size ETT than men, there were no significant differences in POST or PH between genders. Additionally, more women than men have POST when an LMA is used. Awareness of POST and PH may help streamline patients in whom the best airway device could be used during anesthesia and surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ιnterleukin-6 (IL-6) has been identified as an early biochemical marker of inflammation both in animal and human studies. With this study, we sought to examine the development of local inflammation of the glottic tissues in correlation with the duration of intubation in anesthetized pediatric patients. We measured IL-6 levels in the organic material isolated from the tip of the tube post-extubation in 48 children aged 7 months to 14 years old who were submitted to a total of 72 surgical procedures. A statistically significant positive correlation (ρ = 0.28, p = 0.05) was detected among duration of anesthesia and IL-6 concentration. The odds of having detectable IL-6 levels rose by 36.7 % for every 10 min of anesthetic duration (p = 0.045). In conclusion, the increase of IL-6 in relation to the duration of the intubation indicates an increased risk of inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular parasite, usually causes asymptomatic genital tract infections in both men and women with several complications. The role of C. trachomatis infection in the secretion of a number of interleukins (ILs) from epithelial cells has been established by in vitro studies performed on various cell lines. The aim of this study was to detect the seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection. Our case group study included 50 semen samples being PCR-positive for C. trachomatis from 585 semen samples and the ELISA method was applied for detection of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17. Our results demonstrated that the semen levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased, while IL-12 was decreased in C. trachomatis-infected patients. According to these results, it may be concluded that the increased and decreased semen levels of IL-10 and IL-12, respectively, lead to impaired immune responses against C. trachomatis. Increased semen levels of IL-17 may also be associated with the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infection.
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