Comprehensive Smoking Bans and Acute Myocardial Infarction Among Medicare Enrollees in 387 US Counties: 1999-2008
Restrictions on smoking in public places have become increasingly widespread in the United States, particularly since the year 2005. National-scale studies in Europe and local-scale studies in the United States have found decreases in hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following smoking bans. The authors analyzed AMI admission rates for the years 1999-2008 in 387 US counties that enacted comprehensive smoking bans across 9 US states, using a study population of approximately 6 million Medicare enrollees aged 65 years or older. Effects of smoking bans on AMI admissions were estimated by using Poisson regression with linear and nonlinear adjustment for secular trend and random effects at the county level. Under the assumption of linearity in the secular trend of declining AMI, smoking bans were associated with a statistically significant ban-associated decrease in admissions for AMI in the 12 months following the ban. However, the estimated effect was attenuated to nearly zero when the assumption of linearity in the underlying trend was relaxed. This analysis demonstrates that estimation of potential health benefits associated with comprehensive smoking bans is challenged by the need to adjust for nonlinearity in secular trend.
Available from: Hualiang Lin
- "The harmful health effects of smoking has prompted many countries to enacted various smoking regulations in order to directly decrease exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and indirectly reduce active smoking, in hope to prevent and reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality such as acute MI [6,7]. These smoking bans usually prohibited smoking activity in public and working places, such as restaurants, workplaces, and bars, although differnce existed among countries and cities . A growing body of evidence has suggested that the rate of acute myocardial infarction significantly decreased after the introduction of the smoking ban regulations, usually within a short time period. "
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Comprehensive smoke-free legislation has been implemented in many countries. The current study quantitatively examined the reduction in risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) occurrence following the legislations and the relationship with the corresponding smoking prevalence decrease.
PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases and bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews were searched for potential original studies published from January 1, 2004, through October 31, 2011. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effect model to estimate the overall effects of the smoking-free legislations. Meta-regression was used to investigate possible causes of heterogeneity in risk estimates.
A total of 18 eligible studies with 44 estimates of effect size were used in this study. Meta-analysis produced a pooled estimate of the relative risk of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84 to 0.91). There was significant heterogeneity in the risk estimates (overall I2 = 96.03%, p<0.001). In meta-regression analysis, studies with greater smoking prevalence decrease produced larger relative risk (adjusted coefficient −0.027, 95% CI: -0.049 to −0.006, p=0.014).
Smoke-free legislations in public and work places were associated with significant reduction in acute MI risk, which might be partly attributable to reduced smoking prevalence.
BMC Public Health 05/2013; 13(1):529. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-529 · 2.26 Impact Factor
Available from: plosone.org
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ABSTRACT: This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI) enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.
Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.
The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04) immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01) in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.
A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e56102. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056102 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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Laws banning tobacco smoking from public areas have been passed in several countries, including the region of Bremen, Germany at the end of 2007. The present study analyses the incidence of hospital admissions due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) before and after such a smoking ban was implemented, focusing on differences between smokers and non-smokers. In this respect, data of the Bremen STEMI Registry (BSR) give a complete epidemiological overview of a region in northwest Germany with approximately 800,000 inhabitants since all STEMIs are admitted to one central heart centre.
Methods and results:
Between January 2006 and December 2010, data from the BSR was analysed focusing on date of admission, age, gender, and prior nicotine consumption. A total of 3545 patients with STEMI were admitted in the Bremen Heart Centre during this time period. Comparing 2006-2007 vs. 2008-2010, hence before and after the smoking ban, a 16% decrease of the number of STEMIs was observed: from a mean of 65 STEMI/month in 2006-2007 to 55/month in 2008-2010 (p < 0.01). The group of smokers showed a constant number of STEMIs: 25/month in 2006-2007 to 26/month in 2008-2010 (+4%, p = 0.8). However, in non-smokers, a significant reduction of STEMIs over time was found: 39/month in 2006-2007 to 29/month in 2008-2010 (-26%, p < 0.01). The decline of STEMIs in non-smokers was consistently observed in all age groups and both sexes. Adjusting for potentially confounding factors like hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus did not explain the observed decline.
In the BSR, a significant decline of hospital admissions due to STEMIs in non-smokers was observed after the smoking ban in public areas came into force. No reduction of STEMI-related admissions was found in smokers. These results may be explained by the protection of non-smokers from passive smoking and the absence of such an effect in smokers by the dominant effect of active smoking.
04/2013; 21(9). DOI:10.1177/2047487313483610
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