Extended-release naltrexone plus medical management alcohol treatment in primary care: findings at 15months.
ABSTRACT The feasibility of long-term extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) alcohol treatment is unknown. Following an initial 12-week, single-arm, observational trial of XR-NTX plus medical management (MM) in primary care, we offered 48 additional weeks of XR-NTX treatment (12 additional monthly injections) in two public primary care clinics as a naturalistic extension study. Of 65 alcohol dependent adults initiating XR-NTX treatment, 40 (62%) completed the initial 12-week XR-NTX observational trial, and 19 (29%) continued treatment for a median of 38weeks total (range, 16-72weeks; median 8 total XR-NTX injections). Among active extension phase participants, self-reported rates of drinking days (vs. last 30 days pre-treatment baseline) were low: median 0.2 vs. 6.0drinks per day; 82 vs. 38% days abstinent; 11 vs. 61% heavy drinking days. Long-term XR-NTX treatment in a primary care MM model was feasible and may promote lasting drinking reductions or alcohol abstinence (clinical trial: NCT00620750).
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ABSTRACT: Background: Abstinence-based alcohol interventions are minimally desirable to and effective for chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence who have multimorbidity and high publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Lower-barrier, patient-centered combined pharmacobehavioral interventions may more effectively treat this population. Harm reduction counseling involves a nonjudgmental, empathic style and patient-driven goal setting that requires neither abstinence nor use reduction. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving, is safe and effective for active drinkers, and may thereby support harm reduction goal setting. The aims of this 12-week, single-arm pilot were to initially document some aspects of feasibility, acceptability, and alcohol outcomes following XR-NTX administration and harm reduction counseling for chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. Methods: Participants were currently/formerly chronically homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 31) from 2 community-based agencies in the US Pacific Northwest. Measures included self-reported alcohol craving, quantity/frequency, problems, and biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide [EtG], liver transaminases). XR-NTX and harm reduction counseling were administered monthly over the 3-month treatment course. Results: Of the 45 individuals approached, 43 were interested in participation. The first injection was received by 31 participants, and 24 complied with all study procedures. Participants reported the treatment was acceptable. Participants evinced decreases in alcohol craving (33%), typical (25%) and peak (34%) use, frequency (17%), problems (60%), and EtG from the baseline to the 12-week follow-up (Ps Conclusions: XR-NTX and harm reduction counseling are promising means of supporting reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related harm among chronically homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals.Substance Abuse 04/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1080/08897077.2014.904838 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence.01/2015; 2015:1-11. DOI:10.1155/2015/137020
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ABSTRACT: Millions of people who need treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) do not receive it. Evidence-based practices for treating SUD exist, and some are appropriate for delivery outside of specialty care settings. Primary care is an opportune setting in which to deliver SUD treatment because many individuals see their primary care providers at least once a year. Further, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) increases coverage for SUD treatment and is increasing the number of individuals seeking primary care services. In this article, we present the protocol for a study testing the effects of an organizational readiness and service delivery intervention on increasing the uptake of SUD treatment in primary care and on patient outcomes. In a randomized controlled trial, we test the combined effects of an organizational readiness intervention consisting of implementation tools and activities and an integrated collaborative care service delivery intervention based on the Chronic Care Model on service system (patient-centered care, utilization of substance use disorder treatment, utilization of health care services and adoption and sustainability of evidence-based practices) and patient (substance use, consequences of use, health and mental health, and satisfaction with care) outcomes. We also use a repeated measures design to test organizational changes throughout the study, such as acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of the practices to providers, and provider intention to adopt the practices. We use provider focus groups, provider and patient surveys, and administrative data to measure outcomes. The present study responds to critical gaps in health care services for people with substance use disorders, including the need for greater access to SUD treatment and greater uptake of evidence-based practices in primary care. We designed a multi-level study that combines implementation tools to increase organizational readiness to adopt and sustain evidence-based practices (EBPs) and tests the effectiveness of a service delivery intervention on service system and patient outcomes related to SUD services. Current controlled trials: NCT01810159.Implementation Science 05/2015; 10(1):66. DOI:10.1186/s13012-015-0256-7 · 3.47 Impact Factor