Extended-release naltrexone plus medical management alcohol treatment in primary care: findings at 15months.
ABSTRACT The feasibility of long-term extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) alcohol treatment is unknown. Following an initial 12-week, single-arm, observational trial of XR-NTX plus medical management (MM) in primary care, we offered 48 additional weeks of XR-NTX treatment (12 additional monthly injections) in two public primary care clinics as a naturalistic extension study. Of 65 alcohol dependent adults initiating XR-NTX treatment, 40 (62%) completed the initial 12-week XR-NTX observational trial, and 19 (29%) continued treatment for a median of 38weeks total (range, 16-72weeks; median 8 total XR-NTX injections). Among active extension phase participants, self-reported rates of drinking days (vs. last 30 days pre-treatment baseline) were low: median 0.2 vs. 6.0drinks per day; 82 vs. 38% days abstinent; 11 vs. 61% heavy drinking days. Long-term XR-NTX treatment in a primary care MM model was feasible and may promote lasting drinking reductions or alcohol abstinence (clinical trial: NCT00620750).
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Few investigations have examined screening and intervention procedures for comorbid substance use and mental disorders at trauma centers in the United States, although these disorders are endemic among survivors of traumatic injury. In 2006, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) mandated that level I and level II trauma centers screen for alcohol use problems and that level I centers provide brief intervention for those who screen positive. The ACS is expected to recommend best practice policy guidelines for screening for drug use problems and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined screening and intervention procedures for the full spectrum of comorbid mental and substance use disorders at U.S. trauma centers. METHODS Respondents at all level I and level II trauma centers (N=518) in the United States were asked to complete a survey describing screening and intervention procedures for alcohol and drug use problems, suicidality, depression, and PTSD. RESULTS There were 391 (75%) respondents. Over 80% of trauma centers routinely screened for alcohol and drug use problems. Routine screening and intervention for suicidality, depression, and PTSD were markedly less common; in fact, only 7% of centers reported routine screening for PTSD. Consistent with ACS policy, level I centers were significantly more likely than level II centers to provide alcohol intervention. CONCLUSIONS Alcohol screening and intervention occurred frequently at U.S. trauma centers and appeared to be responsive to ACS mandates. In the future, efforts to orchestrate clinical investigation and policy could enhance screening and intervention procedures for highly prevalent, comorbid mental disorders.Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 04/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Abstinence-based alcohol interventions are minimally desirable to and effective for chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence who have multimorbidity and high publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Lower-barrier, patient-centered, combined pharmacobehavioral interventions may more effectively treat this population. Harm-reduction counseling involves a nonjudgmental, empathic style and patient-driven goal-setting that requires neither abstinence nor use reduction. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving, is safe and effective for active drinkers and may thereby support harm-reduction goal setting. The aims of this 12-week, single-arm pilot were to initially document some aspects of feasibility, acceptability and alcohol outcomes following XR-NTX administration and harm-reduction counseling for chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. Methods: Participants were currently/formerly chronically homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 31) from two community-based agencies in the US Pacific Northwest. Measures included self-reported alcohol craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide [EtG], liver transaminases). XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling were administered monthly over the three-month treatment course. Results: Of the 45 individuals approached, 43 were interested in participation. The first injection was received by 31 participants, and 24 complied with all study procedures. Participants reported the treatment was acceptable. Participants evinced decreases in alcohol craving (33%), typical (25%) and peak (34%) use, frequency (17%), problems (60%) and EtG from the baseline to the 12-week follow-up (ps < .05). Conclusions: XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are promising means of supporting reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related harm among chronically homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals.Substance Abuse 04/2014; · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of routine alcohol screening is to identify patients who may benefit from brief intervention, but patients who also have alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) likely require more intensive interventions. This study sought to determine the prevalence of clinically documented AUD/SUD among VA outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use identified by routine screening. VA patients 18-90 years who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥3 women; ≥4 men) and were randomly selected for quality improvement standardized medical record review (6/06-6/10) were included. Gender-stratified prevalences of clinically documented AUD/SUD (diagnosis of AUD, SUD, or alcohol-specific medical conditions, or VA specialty addictions treatment on the date of or 365 days prior to screening) were estimated and compared across AUDIT-C risk groups, and then repeated across groups further stratified by age. Among 63,397 eligible patients with unhealthy alcohol use, 25% (n=2109) women and 28% (n=15,199) men had documented AUD/SUD (p<0.001). The prevalence of AUD/SUD increased with increasing AUDIT-C risk, ranging from 13% (95% CI 13-14%) to 82% (79-85%) for women and 12% (11-12%) to 69% (68-71%) for men in the lowest and highest AUDIT-C risk groups, respectively. Patterns were similar across age groups. One-quarter of all patients with unhealthy alcohol use, and a majority of those with the highest alcohol screening scores, had clinically recognized AUD/SUD. Healthcare systems implementing evidence-based alcohol-related care should be prepared to offer more intensive interventions and/or effective pharmacotherapies for these patients.Drug and alcohol dependence 11/2013; · 3.60 Impact Factor