Effects of tailored knowledge enhancement on colorectal cancer screening preference across ethnic and language groups
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Tailoring to psychological constructs (e.g. self-efficacy, readiness) motivates behavior change, but whether knowledge tailoring alone changes healthcare preferences - a precursor of behavior change in some studies - is unknown. We examined this issue in secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a tailored colorectal cancer (CRC) screening intervention, stratified by ethnicity/language subgroups (Hispanic/Spanish, Hispanic/English, non-Hispanic/English). METHODS: Logistic regressions compared effects of a CRC screening knowledge-tailored intervention versus a non-tailored control on preferences for specific test options (fecal occult blood or colonoscopy), in the entire sample (N=1164) and the three ethnicity/language subgroups. RESULTS: Pre-intervention, preferences for specific tests did not differ significantly between study groups (experimental, 64.5%; control 62.6%). Post-intervention, more experimental participants (78.6%) than control participants (67.7%) preferred specific tests (P<0.001). Adjusting for pre-intervention preferences, more experimental group participants than control group participants preferred specific tests post-intervention [average marginal effect (AME)=9.5%, 95% CI 5.3-13.6; P<0.001]. AMEs were similar across ethnicity/language subgroups. CONCLUSION: Knowledge tailoring increased preferences for specific CRC screening tests across ethnic and language groups. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: If the observed preference changes are found to translate into behavior changes, then knowledge tailoring alone may enhance healthy behaviors.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE Interventions tailored to sociopsychological factors associated with health behaviors have promise for reducing colorectal cancer screening disparities, but limited research has assessed their impact in multiethnic populations. We examined whether an interactive multimedia computer program (IMCP) tailored to expanded health belief model sociopsychological factors could promote colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample. METHODS We undertook a randomized controlled trial, comparing an IMCP tailored to colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy, knowledge, barriers, readiness, test preference, and experiences with a nontailored informational program, both delivered before office visits. The primary outcome was record-documented colorectal cancer screening during a 12-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes included postvisit sociopsychological factor status and discussion, as well as clinician recommendation of screening during office visits. We enrolled 1,164 patients stratified by ethnicity and language (49.3% non-Hispanic, 27.2% Hispanic/English, 23.4% Hispanic/Spanish) from 26 offices around 5 centers (Sacramento, California; Rochester and the Bronx, New York; Denver, Colorado; and San Antonio, Texas). RESULTS Adjusting for ethnicity/language, study center, and the previsit value of the dependent variable, compared with control patients, the IMCP led to significantly greater colorectal cancer screening knowledge, self-efficacy, readiness, test preference specificity, discussion, and recommendation. During the followup period, 132 (23%) IMCP and 123 (22%) control patients received screening (adjusted difference = 0.5 percentage points, 95% CI -4.3 to 5.3). IMCP effects did not differ significantly by ethnicity/language. CONCLUSIONS Sociopsychological factor tailoring was no more effective than nontailored information in encouraging colorectal cancer screening in a multiethnic sample, despite enhancing sociopsychological factors and visit behaviors associated with screening. The utility of sociopsychological tailoring in addressing screening disparities remains uncertain.The Annals of Family Medicine 05/2014; 12(3):204-14. DOI:10.1370/afm.1623 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review was conducted to support knowledge translation (KT) and implementation of interventions to increase participation in organized cancer screening programs in the province of Ontario, Canada. A rigorously designed literature search yielded over 900 references which were then subjected to exclusion criteria. The remainder was organized according to type of intervention, based on the categories applied in two authoritative systematic reviews and an analysis of the level of evidence. Emerging themes in the literature were then identified to provide a bridge between high-level evidence and on-the-ground practice. We identify three promising types of KT interventions: community-based health education; lay or peer health education; and targeted or tailored interventions. Each is summarized with illustrative examples and a summary of key themes and considerations. The authors conclude with a summary the types and a decision tool designed to help KT and implementation teams select interventions which could be adapted to their own context.International Journal of Public Health 02/2015; 60(4). DOI:10.1007/s00038-015-0666-y · 1.97 Impact Factor