Embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model using thrombin and fibrinogen composed clots in rat

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100093, PR China.
Journal of neuroscience methods (Impact Factor: 2.3). 09/2012; 211(2):296-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.09.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ischemic stroke accounts for over 80% in total human stroke which mostly affect middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Embolic stroke models induced by injection of homologous clots into the internal carotid artery and MCA closely mimic human stroke and have been commonly used in stroke research. Studies indicate that the size and composition of clots are critical for the reproducibility of the stroke model. In the present study, we modified the homologous clots formation by addition of thrombin and fibrinogen which produced even distribution of fibrin with tight cross linkage of red blood cells. We optimized the embolic MCA occlusion model in rats using different size of the mixed clots. A precise lodgment of the clots at the MCA bifurcation and highly reproducible ischemic lesion in the MCA territory were demonstrated in the embolic MCA occlusion model induced by injection of 10 pieces of 1-mm long mixed clots made in PE-60 catheter. We further tested the effect of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) in this embolic MCA occlusion model. rtPA induced thrombolysis, improved neurological outcome, and significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume when administered at 1h after embolism as compared with control. In summary, we have established a reproducible embolic MCA occlusion model using clots made of homologous blood, thrombin and fibrinogen. The mixed clots enable precise lodgment at the MCA bifurcation which is responsive to thrombolytic therapy of rtPA.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of autophagy in response to ischemic stroke has been confusing with reports that both enhancement and inhibition of autophagy decrease infarct size and improve post-stroke outcomes. We sought to clarify this by comparing pharmacologic modulation of autophagy in two clinically relevant murine models of stroke. METHODS: We used rapamycin to induce autophagy, and chloroquine to block completion of autophagy, by treating mice immediately after stroke and at 24 hours post-stroke in two different models; permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Ligation (MCAL), which does not allow for reperfusion of distal trunk of middle cerebral artery, and Embolic Clot Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (eMCAO) which allows for a slow reperfusion similar to that seen in most human stroke patients. Outcome measures at 48 hours post-stroke included infarct size analysis, behavioral assessment using Bederson neurological scoring, and survival. RESULTS: Chloroquine treatment reduced the lesion size by approximately 30% and was significant only in the eMCAO model, where it also improved the neurological score, but did not increase survival. Rapamycin reduced lesion size by 44% and 50% in the MCAL and eMCAO models, respectively. Rapamycin also improved the neurological score to a greater degree than chloroquine and improved survival. CONCLUSIONS: While both inhibition and enhancement of autophagy by pharmacological intervention decreased lesion size and improved neurological scores, the enhancement with rapamycin showed a greater degree of improvement in outcomes as well as in survival. The protective action seen with chloroquine may be in part due to off-target effects on apoptosis separate from blocking lysosomal activity in autophagy. We conclude pharmacologic induction of autophagy is more advantageous than its blockade in physiologically-relevant permanent and slow reperfusion stroke models.
    Experimental and Translational Stroke Medicine 06/2014; 6(8). DOI:10.1186/2040-7378-6-8
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has been used by several groups to assess cerebral hemodynamics of cerebral ischemia in humans and animals. In this study, we combined DOT with an indocyanine green (ICG)-tracking method to achieve interleaved images of cerebral hemodynamics and blood flow index (BFI) using two middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models. To achieve volumetric images with high-spatial resolution, we first integrated a depth compensation algorithm (DCA) with a volumetric mesh-based rat head model to generate three-dimensional (3D) DOT on a rat brain atlas. Then, the experimental DOT data from two rat models were collected using interleaved strategy for cerebral hemodynamics and BFI during and after ischemic stroke, with and without a thrombolytic therapy for the embolic MCAO model. The acquired animal data were further analyzed using the integrated rat-atlas-guided DOT method to form time-evolving 3D images of both cerebral hemodynamics and BFI. In particular, we were able to show and identify therapeutic outcomes of a thrombolytic treatment applied to the embolism-induced ischemic model. This paper demonstrates that volumetric DOT is capable of providing high-quality, interleaved images of cerebral hemodynamics and blood perfusion in small animals during and after ischemic stroke, with excellent 3D visualization and quantifications.
    NeuroImage 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.07.020 · 6.13 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014