Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: an update on pharmacological treatments and management strategies.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecologic complaint among adolescents/young adults. Dysmenorrhea is usually primary and is associated with normal ovulatory cycles and with no pelvic pathology. Potent prostaglandins and potent leukotrienes play an important role in generating primary dysmenorrhea symptoms. Adolescents/young adults with severe dysmenorrhea symptoms may have pelvic abnormalities, such as endometriosis or uterine anomalies (secondary dysmenorrhea). Areas covered: This review provides an update on treatments and management strategies of dysmenorrhea in adolescents/young adults. Medical literature articles were retrieved using a Medline search on primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Original articles from peer-reviewed journals were selected based on relevance. Expert opinion: Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is the preferred initial treatment for dysmenorrhea in nonsexually active adolescents/young adults. Adolescents/young adults with symptoms that do not respond to NSAIDs for three menstrual periods should be offered hormonal treatment, such as combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), for three menstrual cycles. If dysmenorrhea does not improve within 6 months of NSAIDs and OCPs, a laparoscopy is indicated to look for endometriosis, which is the most common reason for secondary dysmenorrhea.
SourceAvailable from: Farzaneh Kashefi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year before IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Women aged 18 years and older in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. One hundred twenty-one patients were studied. Twenty-five percent of patients experienced a change in cycle interval in the year before IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in the duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time. Quality of life was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year before IBD diagnosis; therefore, screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/01.MIB.0000441347.94451.cf · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iindex of published papers on thermology or temperature measurement Voluime 4: 2011 to 2013