Structure of a Novel Winged-Helix Like Domain from Human NFRKB Protein
ABSTRACT The human nuclear factor related to kappa-B-binding protein (NFRKB) is a 1299-residue protein that is a component of the metazoan INO80 complex involved in chromatin remodeling, transcription regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Although full length NFRKB is predicted to be around 65% disordered, comparative sequence analysis identified several potentially structured sections in the N-terminal region of the protein. These regions were targeted for crystallographic studies, and the structure of one of these regions spanning residues 370-495 was determined using the JCSG high-throughput structure determination pipeline. The structure reveals a novel, mostly helical domain reminiscent of the winged-helix fold typically involved in DNA binding. However, further analysis shows that this domain does not bind DNA, suggesting it may belong to a small group of winged-helix domains involved in protein-protein interactions.
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ABSTRACT: In humans, the elucidation of the genetics underlying multifactorial diseases such as pre-eclampsia remains complex. Given the current day availability of genome-wide linkage- and expression data pools, we applied pathway-guided genome-wide meta-analysis guided by the premise that the functional network underlying these multifactorial syndromes is under selective genetic pressure. This approach drastically reduced the genomic region of interest, i.e. 2p13 linked with pre-eclampsia in Icelandic families, from 8,679,641 bp (region with linkage) to 45,264 bp (coding exons of prioritized genes) (0.83%). Mutation screening of the candidate genes (n=13) rapidly reduced the minimal critical region and showed the INO80B gene, encoding a novel winged helix domain (pfam14465) and part of the chromatin-remodelling complex, to be linked to pre-eclampsia. The functional defect in placental cells involved a susceptibility allele-dependent loss-of-gene silencing due to increased INO80B RNA stability as a consequence of differential binding of miR-1324 to the susceptibility allele of rs34174194. This risk allele is located at position 1 in an absolutely conserved 7-mer (UUGUCUG) in the 3-UTR of INO80B immediately downstream of a variant Pumillio Recognition Element (UGUANAAG). These data support that pre-eclampsia genes affect a conserved fundamental mechanism that evolved as a consequence of hemochorial placentation. Functionally, this involves founder-dependent, placentally expressed paralogous genes that regulate an essential trophoblast differentiation pathway but act at different entry points.Human Molecular Genetics 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu423 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability of kinetochores (KTs) to maintain stable attachments to dynamic microtubule structures ('straight' during microtubule polymerization and 'curved' during microtubule depolymerization) is an essential requirement for accurate chromosome segregation. Here we show that the kinetochore-associated Ska complex interacts with tubulin monomers via the carboxy-terminal winged-helix domain of Ska1, providing the structural basis for the ability to bind both straight and curved microtubule structures. This contrasts with the Ndc80 complex, which binds straight microtubules by recognizing the dimeric interface of tubulin. The Ska1 microtubule-binding domain interacts with tubulins using multiple contact sites that allow the Ska complex to bind microtubules in multiple modes. Disrupting either the flexibility or the tubulin contact sites of the Ska1 microtubule-binding domain perturbs normal mitotic progression, explaining the critical role of the Ska complex in maintaining a firm grip on dynamic microtubules.Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:2964. DOI:10.1038/ncomms3964 · 10.74 Impact Factor