Enteric-delivered rapamycin enhances resistance of aged mice to pneumococcal pneumonia through reduced cellular senescence
ABSTRACT Rapamycin, a potent immunomodulatory drug, has shown promise in the amelioration of numerous age-associated diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and cardiac hypertrophy. Yet the elderly, the population most likely to receive therapeutic rapamycin, are already at increased risk for infectious disease; thus concern exists that rapamycin may exacerbate age-associated immune dysfunctions and worsen infection outcomes. Herein, we examined the impact of enteric delivered rapamycin monotherapy (eRapa) on the susceptibility of aged (22-24month) C57BL/6 mice to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Following challenge with S. pneumoniae, administration of eRapa conferred modest protection against mortality. Reduced mortality was the result of diminished lung damage rather than reduced bacterial burden. eRapa had no effect on basal levels of Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, KC, Interferon-γ, Tumor necrosis factor α and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in whole lung homogenates or during pneumococcal pneumonia. Previously we have demonstrated that cellular senescence enhances permissiveness for bacterial pneumonia through increased expression of the bacterial ligands Laminin receptor (LR), Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr) and Cytokeratin 10 (K10). These proteins are co-opted by S. pneumoniae and other respiratory tract pathogens for host cell attachment during lung infection. UM-HET3 mice on eRapa had reduced lung cellular senescence as determined by levels of the senescence markers p21 and pRB, but not mH2A.1. Mice on eRapa also had marked reductions in PAFr, LR, and K10. We conclude that eRapa protected aged mice against pneumonia through reduced lung cellular senescence, which in turn, lowered bacterial ligand expression.
SourceAvailable from: Olga V Leontieva[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phorbol ester (PMA or TPA), a tumor promoter, can cause either proliferation or cell cycle arrest, depending on cellular context. For example, in SKBr3 breast cancer cells, PMA hyper-activates the MEK/MAPK pathway, thus inducing p21 and cell cycle arrest. Here we showed that PMA-induced arrest was followed by conversion to cellular senescence (geroconversion). Geroconversion was associated with active mTOR and S6 kinase (S6K). Rapamycin suppressed geroconversion, maintaining quiescence instead. In this model, PMA induced arrest (step one of a senescence program), whereas constitutively active mTOR drove geroconversion (step two). Without affecting Akt phosphorylation, PMA increased phosphorylation of S6K (T389) and S6 (S240/244), and that was completely prevented by rapamycin. Yet, T421/S424 and S235/236 (p-S6K and p-S6, respectively) phosphorylation became rapamycin-insensitive in the presence of PMA. Either MEK or mTOR was sufficient to phosphorylate these PMA-induced rapamycin-resistant sites because co-treatment with U0126 and rapamycin was required to abrogate them. We next tested whether activation of rapamycin-insensitive pathways would shift quiescence towards senescence. In HT-p21 cells, cell cycle arrest was caused by IPTG-inducible p21 and was spontaneously followed by mTOR-dependent geroconversion. Rapamycin suppressed geroconversion, whereas PMA partially counteracted the effect of rapamycin, revealing the involvement of rapamycin-insensitive gerogenic pathways. In normal RPE cells arrested by serum withdrawal, the mTOR/pS6 pathway was inhibited and cells remained quiescent. PMA transiently activated mTOR, enabling partial geroconversion. We conclude that PMA can initiate a senescent program by either inducing arrest or fostering geroconversion or both. Rapamycin can decrease gero-conversion by PMA, without preventing PMA-induced arrest. The tumor promoter PMA is a gero-promoter, which may be useful to study aging in mammals.Oncotarget 12/2014; 5(24):12715-27. · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At a wide range of doses, rapamycin extends life span in mice. It was shown that intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of rapamycin prevent weight gain in mice on high-fat diet (HFD). We further investigated the effect of rapamycin on weight gain in female C57BL/6 mice on HFD started at the age of 7.5 months. By the age of 16 and 23 months, mice on HFD weighed significantly more (52 vs 33 g; p = 0.0001 and 70 vs 38 g; p < 0.0001, respectively) than mice on low fat diet (LFD). The i.p. administration of 1.5 mg/kg rapamycin, 3 times a week every other week, completely prevented weight gain, whereas administration of rapamycin by oral gavash did not. Rapamycin given in the drinking water slightly decreased weight gain by the age of 23 months. In addition, metabolic parameters were evaluated at the age of 16 and 23 months, 6 and 13 days after last rapamycin administration, respectively. Plasma leptin levels strongly correlated with body weight, (P < 0.0001, r=0.86), suggesting that the difference in weight was due to fat tissue mass. Levels of insulin, glucose, triglycerides and IGF1 were not statistically different in all groups, indicating that these courses of rapamycin treatment did not impair metabolic parameters at least after rapamycin discontinuation. Despite rapamycin discontinuation, cardiac levels of phospho-S6 and pAKT(S473) were low in the i.p.-treated group. This continuous effect of rapamycin can be explained by prevention of obesity in the i.p. group. We conclude that intermittent i.p. administration of rapamycin prevents weight gain without causing gross metabolic abnormalities. Intermittent gavash administration minimally affected weight gain. Potential clinical applications are discussed.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11/2014; 13(21):3350-3356. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.970491 · 5.01 Impact Factor
Article: Gerosuppression in confluent cells[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The most physiological type of cell cycle arrest - namely, contact inhibition in dense culture - is the least densely studied. Despite cell cycle arrest, confluent cells do not become senescent. We recently described that mTOR (target of rapamycin) is inactive in contact-inhibited cells. Therefore, conversion from reversible arrest to senescence (geroconversion) is suppressed. I this Perspective, we further extended the gerosuppression model. While causing senescence in regular cell density, etoposide failed to cause senescence in contact-inhibited cells. A transient reactivation of mTOR favored geroconversion in etoposide-treated confluent cells. Like p21, p16 did not cause senescence in high cell density. We discuss that suppression of geroconversion in confluent and contact-inhibited cultures mimics gerosuppression in the organism. We confirmed that levels of p-S6 were low in murine tissues in the organism compared with mouse embryonic fibroblasts in cell culture, whereas p-Akt was reciprocally high in the organism.Aging 12/2014; 6(12):1010-8. · 4.89 Impact Factor