Associations between individual foods or nutrients and oxidative markers have been reported. Comprehensive measures of food intake may be uniquely informative, given the complexity of oxidative systems and the possibility of antioxidant synergies. We quantified associations over a 20-year history between three food-based dietary patterns, summary measures of whole diet, and a plasma biomarker of lipid peroxidation, F(2)-isoprostanes, in a cohort of Americans ages 18-30 at year 0 (1985-1986). We assessed diet at years 0, 7, and 20 through a detailed history of past-month food consumption and supplement use and measured plasma F(2)-isoprostanes at years 15 and 20. We created three different dietary patterns: (1) a priori ("a priori diet quality score") based on hypothesized healthy foods, (2) an empirical pattern reflecting high fruit and vegetable intake ("fruit-veg"), and (3) an empirical pattern reflecting high meat intake ("meat"). We used linear regression to estimate associations between each dietary pattern and plasma F(2)-isoprostanes cross-sectionally (at year 20, n=2736) and prospectively (year 0/7 average diet and year 15/20 average F(2)-isoprostanes, n=2718), adjusting for age, sex, race, total energy intake, education, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, and supplement use. In multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional analysis, the a priori diet quality score and the fruit-veg diet pattern were negatively, and the meat pattern was positively, associated with F(2)-isoprostanes (all p values <0.001). These associations remained statistically significant in prospective analysis. Our findings suggest that a long-term adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low in red meat may decrease lipid peroxidation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. With the recognition of atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease, nutrition research interest has expanded towards the role of dietary patterns in the prevention of atherosclerosis primarily focused on associations with early inflammatory markers. This review summarizes the latest evidence from January 2010 until January 2013 of eight observational studies on the associations between empirically-derived dietary patterns and diet quality scores with markers of inflammation and endothelial function. Overall, results of recently published cohort studies support those of previously published cross-sectional studies suggesting that consuming a healthy type of diet characteristically abundant in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of C-reactive protein and other inflammatory markers. Unfavourable associations were found between eating a Western dietary pattern high in meat and inflammatory markers. Different statistical approaches of deriving dietary patterns were applied in these studies and most of them lacked in reporting absolute intakes of foods and/or food groups. Future prospective cohort studies are needed to evaluate long-term associations between dietary patterns and changes in inflammatory markers by comparing various approaches of dietary pattern derivation within a population. Reporting absolute intakes of foods and/or food groups may also facilitate the identification of a typical dietary pattern that may beneficially influence inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities.
Between 2003 and 2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30 239 black and white Americans aged ≥45 years. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox-proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke.
During 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.91; Ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.05, 1.84), with a significant (P=0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%.
These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke, whereas adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary effect on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged men, with an emphasis on vitamin C, fiber, and magnesium content.
The study was conducted with 296 healthy men, age 50.5 ± 5.0 y, and body mass index (BMI) of 25.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2). Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features, and blood and urine biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. The oxidative stress markers selected were plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 α (8-iso-PGF2 α) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG).
The men included in the highest tertile of FV intake (≥341.1 g/d) displayed lower concentrations of ox-LDL, 8-iso-PGF2 α and 8-OHdG (P for trend < 0.05), regardless of confounding factors. Concentrations of ox-LDL were negatively associated with fiber from the FV intake (P for trend < 0.05) regardless of confounding factors. ox-LDL and 8-OHdG concentrations tended to be lower in the higher tertile of magnesium (P for trend = 0.06) and vitamin C from FV intake (P for trend = 0.05), respectively. Additionally, concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2 α were lower in men in the highest tertile of fiber (≥6.5 g/d; P for trend = 0.034), vitamin C (≥98.0 mg/d; P for trend = 0.007), and magnesium (≥48.9 mg/d; P for trend = 0.018) from the FV-group intake.
Greater FV intake was independently associated with reduced ox-LDL, 8-OHdG, and 8-iso-PGF2 α in middle-aged men. Fiber, vitamin C, and magnesium from FV seem to contribute to this beneficial relationship.
Sylvia E Badon, Pandora L Wander, Chunfang Qiu, Raymond S Miller, Michelle A Williams, Daniel A Enquobahrie
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