Objective: To investigate the effects of ovarian endometrioma on the number of oocytes retrieved for in vitro fertilization (IVF).Background: The presence of endometrioma may be the most important predictor of a poor reproductive outcome. Literature data suggest that ovarian endometriomas might affect the response to ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval.Methods: The present retrospective study evaluates 2,023 women who applied to our center with an infertility complaint. Twenty-nine women with endometriomas (group 1) who were treated with IVF were included in the study. They were compared with 51 women with unexplained infertility (group 2) regarding the number of retrieved oocytes after egg retrieval and number of metaphase II oocytes. The diagnosis of endometrioma was made via ultrasound examination with the identification of low-density cystic masses in the ovaries. The patients underwent a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with either the long agonist mini-dose protocol or the multi-dose antagonist protocol.Results: The incidence of endometrioma in infertile women was found to be 1.4 %. The women's ages ranged between 24 and 45 years, and the duration of their infertility ranged between 12 and 216 months. The endometrioma was bilateral in 24 % of the cases. The mean endometrioma diameter was 26.2±7.3 mm for the right ovary and 23.2±6.1 mm for the left ovary. The average number of retrieved oocytes after egg retrieval in groups 1 and 2 was 12.4±8.3 and 12.2±8.6, respectively. The average number of metaphase II oocytes in groups 1 and 2 was 8.6±6.1 and 9.4±7.3, respectively. The number of retrieved oocytes after egg retrieval and the number of metaphase II oocytes in both endometrioma group and unexplained infertile group were similar (p >0.05).Conclusion: Endometrioma did not reduce the number of retrieved oocytes in a COH cycle for IVF treatment. However it should be noted that the ovarian response is affected by the size of endometriomas, bilaterality, previous surgeries, recurrence, and the patient's age (Tab. 1, Ref. 31). Keywords: endometrioma, oocyte, infertility.
"Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online. number of oocytes retrieved during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, but characteristics such as the size of endometriomas, bilaterality, and previous excision surgeries, may affect the ovarian response and oocyte quality [Kiran et al. 2012]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological condition that affects 10-32% of women of reproductive age and may lead to infertility. The study of protein profiles in follicular fluid may assist in elucidating possible biomarkers related to this disease. For this, follicular fluid samples were obtained from women with tubal factor or minimal male factor infertility who had pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment (control group, n ¼ 10), women with endometriosis (endometriosis group, n ¼ 10), along with the endometrioma from these same patients were included (endometrioma group, n ¼ 10). For proteomic analysis, samples were pooled according to their respective groups and normalized to protein content. Proteins were analyzed by in tandem mass spectrometry (MS E) Spectra processing and the ProteinLynx Global Server v.2.5. was used for database searching. Data was submitted to the biological network analysis using Cytoscape 2.8.2 with ClueGO plugin. As a result, 535 proteins were identified among all groups. The control group differentially or uniquely expressed 33 (6%) proteins and equal expression of 98 (18%) proteins was observed in the control and endometriosis groups of which 41 (7%) proteins were further identified and/or quantified. Six (1%) proteins were observed in both the endometriosis and endometrioma groups, but 212 (39%) proteins were exclusively identified and/or quantified in the endometrioma group. There were 9 (1%) proteins observed in both the control and endometrioma groups and there were 139 (25%) proteins common among all three groups. Distinct differences among the protein profiles in the follicular fluid of patients included in this study were found, identifying proteins related to the disease progression and IVF success. Thus, some pathways related to endometriosis are associated with the presence of specific proteins, as well as the absence of others. This study provides a first step to the development of more sensitive diagnostic tests and treatment. Abbreviations: bhCG: beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; FF: follicular fluid; GO: Gene Ontology; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; hCG: human chorionic gonadotropins; ICSI: intracytoplasmic sperm injection; IVF: in vitro fertilization; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; LH: luteinizing hormone; MS: mass spectrometry; MS E : in tandem mass spectrometry; nanoESI MSE: nano Electrospray MSE; nanoUPLCtandem-: nano Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography tamdem; ROS: reactive oxygen species; VDBP: vitamin D-binding protein
Systems biology in reproductive medicine 07/2015; 61(5):1939-6376. DOI:10.3109/19396368.2015.1037025 · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed the studies about fertility-sparing in young patient presenting a benign ovarian tumor. It appears that more than the histologic nature of the ovarian cysts, it is the surgical treatment of the cyst which may decrease fertility. Some good practice of surgical procedures must be kept in mind when one manages a benign ovarian tumor in a young patient wishing to preserve her fertility: surgery should be avoided as much as possible; kystectomy is better than oophorectomy; no radical surgery should be done without pathological certitudes; electrocoagulation must be avoided on the cyst walls. In some situations, fertility is specially endangered: bilateral ovarian cysts, recurrence or strong probability of recurrence (endometriomas), poor ovarian reserve (previous chemo- or radiotherapy, age>35, premature ovarian failure). In these situations, a pre-operative assessment of the ovarian reserve could be useful. Beside the surgical 'good procedures', gamete cryopreservation procedures could be used. Cryopreservation of mature oocytes (after ovarian hyperstimulation) or in vitro mature oocytes (after antral follicle retrieval) can be proposed. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is another option. Oocyte (or embryos) cryopreservation can be proposed before or after the surgery. The global management of benign ovarian tumors in young patients should be decided between surgeons and specialists in reproductive biology.
Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 11/2013; 42(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jgyn.2013.09.034 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Does the iron content of an endometrioma represent a potential source of toxicity for the adjacent follicles?
The presence of an endometrioma increases iron and H/L ferritin levels, and transferrin receptor (TfR1) mRNA in individual follicles proximal to the endometrioma and is accompanied by reduced oocyte retrieval.
Levels of free iron in endometriotic ovarian cysts are much higher than those in normal serum or in non-endometriotic ovarian cysts. The presence of an endometrioma exerts a detrimental effect on the surrounding healthy ovarian tissue as reflected by a reduced number of developing follicles and oocytes retrieved in IVF cycles.
This is a research study with prospective collection and evaluation of individual follicles (follicular fluid and luteinized granulosa cells) from the affected and the healthy ovaries of 13 women with unilateral endometrioma.
Individual follicular samples (145) were obtained from 13 women with endometriosis-related infertility undergoing IVF-ICSI procedures from May 2012 to March 2013. All women had unilateral endometrioma not previously treated with surgery; the contralateral ovary was free of endometriomas and previous surgery. The average ± SEM age was 35.36 ± 2.5 years with anti-Mullerian hormone levels of 2.03 ± 0.55 ng/ml. Follicles were classified as: (i) proximal follicles, in physical contact with the endometrioma; (ii) distal follicles, present in the affected ovary but not in close contact with the endometrioma and (iii) contralateral follicles, in the contralateral healthy ovary. Iron content was measured by the FerroZine method. H/L ferritin subunits were evaluated by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays. Expression of H ferritin and TfR1 was examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Oocyte retrieval rates and Day 3 embryo quality were analyzed.
Total iron levels were higher in endometrioma-proximal follicles compared with endometrioma-distal ones (P = 0.009) and to follicles in the healthy ovary (P = 0.02). L ferritin was higher in proximal versus distal follicles (P = 0.044) or follicles from the healthy ovary (P = 0.027). H ferritin was higher in the proximal and distal follicles compared with follicles in the healthy ovary (P = 0.042 and P = 0.0067, respectively). H ferritin transcript levels in granulosa cells were higher in proximal follicles versus follicles from healthy ovary (P = 0.02). TfR1 transcript levels were higher in proximal versus distal follicles (P = 0.03) and versus follicles from the healthy ovary (P = 0.04). The oocyte retrieval rate was lower in proximal and distal follicles than in follicles from the healthy ovary (P = 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively).
This is a study on a relatively small sample size and confirmation in a larger group of patients may be required. The method used to purify luteinized granulosa cells offers the best combination of purity, viability and total number of cells recovered. However, a minor contamination by CD45(+) cells (<5%) cannot be excluded.
This study represents a further in-depth analysis of the toxic influence of the endometrioma content on the surrounding follicles. We demonstrate the presence of iron-related compounds that are potentially toxic to developing ovarian follicles adjacent to the endometrioma during IVF. Our findings provide novel information that suggests that when surgical removal of the endometrioma is not the option, follicle aspiration at sites distant from the endometrioma might increase the probability of retrieving oocytes.
This project was supported by Fondazione Giorgio Pardi, Milan, Italy. The authors have no competing financial interests in relation to the content of this research paper. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NA.
Human Reproduction 01/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1093/humrep/det466 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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