HIV Providers' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Female Versus Male Patients.
ABSTRACT Abstract As a first step in understanding the role that health care providers may play in observed gender disparities in HIV care in the United States, we sought to examine whether HIV providers' perceptions of and attitudes toward female and male patients differ. We used data from the Enhancing Communication to Improve HIV Outcomes (ECHO) study, a multisite, cross-sectional study focused on the role of the patient-provider relationship in disparities in HIV care conducted from October 2006 to June 2007. Using separate scales, we assessed HIV providers' perceptions about their patients (e.g., intelligence, compliance, responsibility) as well as providers' attitudes toward their patients (e.g., like, respect, frustrate). We used multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare provider scores for female and male patients. Our sample comprised 37 HIV providers and 317 patients. Compared with male patients, HIV-infected females were less likely to be highly educated or employed, and more likely to report nonadherence to antiretroviral medications and depressive symptoms. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, there was a significant difference in providers' perceptions of female and male patients, with providers having more negative perceptions of female patients. However, there was no significant difference in HIV providers' attitudes toward female and male patients in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Further study is needed to elucidate the role of providers' perceptions and attitudes about female and male patients in observed gender disparities in HIV care.
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ABSTRACT: Patient and physician gender may impact the process of medical care and its outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the influence of patient gender on what takes place during initial primary care visits while controlling for other variables previously demonstrated to affect the physician-patient interaction, such as physician gender and specialty, patient health status, pain, depression, obesity, age, education, and income. New patients (315 women, 194 men) were randomized for care by 105 primary care physicians. Sociodemographic information, self-reported health status and pain measures, a depression evaluation, screening for alcoholism, history of tobacco use, and measured body mass index (BMI) were collected during a previsit interview. The entire medical visit was videotaped, and then analyzed using the Davis Observation Code (DOC) system. There was no significant difference in the visit length or work intensity (number of behavioral codes) for female patients compared with male patients; however, women's visits had more discussions regarding the results of the therapeutic interventions, more preventive services, less physical examination, and fewer discussions about tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse. There are significant differences in the process of care between female and male patients. Physicians may be making medical decisions based on gender-related considerations. Strategies for implementing knowledge about these gender differences are crucial for the delivery of gender-sensitive care.Journal of Women's Health 07/2007; 16(6):859-68. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2006.0170 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.AIDS patient care and STDs 01/2013; DOI:10.1089/apc.2012.0356 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The Gender, Race And Clinical Experience (GRACE) study was conducted between October 2006 and December 2008 to evaluate sex- and race-based differences in outcomes after treatment with a darunavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral regimen. Between June 2010 and June 2011, former participants of the GRACE trial at participating sites were asked to complete a 40-item questionnaire as part of the GRACE Participant Survey study, with a primary objective of assessing patients' characteristics, experiences, and opinions about participation in GRACE. Of 243 potential survey respondents, 151 (62%) completed the survey. Respondents were representative of the overall GRACE population and were predominantly female (64%); fewer were black, and more reported recreational drug use compared with nonrespondents (55% vs. 62% and 17% vs. 10%, respectively). Access to treatment (41%) and too many blood draws (26%) were reported as the best and worst part of GRACE, respectively. Support from study site staff was reported as the most important factor in completing the study (47%). Factors associated with nonadherence, study discontinuation, and poor virologic response in univariate analyses were being the primary caregiver for children, unemployment, and transportation difficulties, respectively. Patients with these characteristics may be at risk of poor study outcomes and may benefit from additional adherence and retention strategies in future studies and routine clinical care.AIDS patient care and STDs 05/2013; 27(6). DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0015 · 3.58 Impact Factor