Abstract As a first step in understanding the role that health care providers may play in observed gender disparities in HIV care in the United States, we sought to examine whether HIV providers' perceptions of and attitudes toward female and male patients differ. We used data from the Enhancing Communication to Improve HIV Outcomes (ECHO) study, a multisite, cross-sectional study focused on the role of the patient-provider relationship in disparities in HIV care conducted from October 2006 to June 2007. Using separate scales, we assessed HIV providers' perceptions about their patients (e.g., intelligence, compliance, responsibility) as well as providers' attitudes toward their patients (e.g., like, respect, frustrate). We used multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations to compare provider scores for female and male patients. Our sample comprised 37 HIV providers and 317 patients. Compared with male patients, HIV-infected females were less likely to be highly educated or employed, and more likely to report nonadherence to antiretroviral medications and depressive symptoms. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, there was a significant difference in providers' perceptions of female and male patients, with providers having more negative perceptions of female patients. However, there was no significant difference in HIV providers' attitudes toward female and male patients in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Further study is needed to elucidate the role of providers' perceptions and attitudes about female and male patients in observed gender disparities in HIV care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the number of women infected with HIV in the United States continues to increase, the medical community is faced with the challenge of providing adequate and appropriate care to them. This paper reviews key questions concerning the state of knowledge on the epidemiology, biology, and clinical care of women living with HIV and AIDS in the United States. Because heterosexual transmission accounts for a growing number of cases among women, biological factors and cofactors that may enhance women's susceptibility to HIV infection are also reviewed. HIV-related gynecological issues are presented separately to evaluate whether gynecological complications are distinct in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Questions of whether there are sex-specific differences in the efficacy and adverse effects of new antiviral agents are discussed. In addition, significant gaps are highlighted that still exist in our understanding of both the effects of HIV and HIV-related drugs upon pregnancy. Finally, the psychiatric stresses and complications that affect women living with HIV and AIDS are also discussed. In each section of this review, gaps in our knowledge of these issues are identified. To properly address these disparities in knowledge, not only do efforts to gather sex-specific biomedical data need to be more exacting, but there is a distinct need to conduct more sex-specific research concerning HIV.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 02/2001; 17(1):1-33. DOI:10.1089/088922201750056753 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient and physician gender may impact the process of medical care and its outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the influence of patient gender on what takes place during initial primary care visits while controlling for other variables previously demonstrated to affect the physician-patient interaction, such as physician gender and specialty, patient health status, pain, depression, obesity, age, education, and income.
New patients (315 women, 194 men) were randomized for care by 105 primary care physicians. Sociodemographic information, self-reported health status and pain measures, a depression evaluation, screening for alcoholism, history of tobacco use, and measured body mass index (BMI) were collected during a previsit interview. The entire medical visit was videotaped, and then analyzed using the Davis Observation Code (DOC) system.
There was no significant difference in the visit length or work intensity (number of behavioral codes) for female patients compared with male patients; however, women's visits had more discussions regarding the results of the therapeutic interventions, more preventive services, less physical examination, and fewer discussions about tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse.
There are significant differences in the process of care between female and male patients. Physicians may be making medical decisions based on gender-related considerations. Strategies for implementing knowledge about these gender differences are crucial for the delivery of gender-sensitive care.
Journal of Women's Health 07/2007; 16(6):859-68. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2006.0170 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.
AIDS patient care and STDs 01/2013; 27(2). DOI:10.1089/apc.2012.0356 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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